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The design world’s eyes are on organs-on-chips

Organs-on-chips Museum of Modern Art MoMA London Design Museum exhibit Wyss Institute Vascular Biology
Organs-on-chips on display in New York City’s Museum of Modern Art. (Photo: Wyss Institute at Harvard University)

If you’re in New York City in the next few months, pop into the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) and stop by the “This Is For Everyone: Design For The Common Good” exhibit. There—alongside displays dedicated to the “@” symbol, the pin icon from Google Maps and bricks made from living mushroom roots—you’ll find three small silicone blocks mounted on a wall panel.

Those blocks are actually three of the organs-on-chips developed in the lab of Donald Ingber, MD, PhD, founding director of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and a scientist in Boston Children’s Hospital’s Vascular Biology Program.

Earlier this month, MoMA announced its plans to include the chips as part of their exploration of contemporary design in the digital age. In the museum’s eyes, organs-on-chips are more than a way to model disease in a complex, living system—they’re also art.

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What we’ve been reading: Week of March 23, 2015

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Single-Dose Cures for Malaria, Other Diseases (MIT Technology Review)
Pills that deliver a full course of treatment in one swallow could, or “super pills,” could simplify the treatment of diseases such as malaria and potentially produce cost savings that stretch into the $100 billion a year range, according to Bob Langer, PhD, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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CareAline: A mother’s road to SXSW

The CareAline wrap, modeled by Lochlan Fitzgerald
The CareAline wrap, modeled by Lochlan Fitzgerald. Below, the CareAline sleeve.

Our daughter, Saoirse, was diagnosed with cancer when she was 11 months old. Her care, safety and comfort were our first priorities. When she had a PICC line and later a central line placed to infuse drugs and fluids, we saw a need for a better way to keep these lines safe and secure without using skin-damaging tape and irritating mesh netting. Saoirse was tugging at her lines and trying to pull off the tape, so I handmade a fabric sleeve for her PICC line and a chest wrap for her central line, and she went back to playing and being a kid.

Initially we figured that would be the end of it.

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Six emerging trends in vaccine development

boy receiving vaccine-shutterstock

Vaccines to protect against infectious disease are the single most effective medical product, but developing new ones is a challenging and lengthy process, limiting their use in developing countries where they are most needed. Once a new vaccine is developed, it undergoes animal testing, which is time-consuming and does not necessarily reflect human immunity.

“It can take decades from the start of vaccine development to FDA approval at huge cost,” says Ofer Levy, MD, PhD, a physician and researcher in the Division of Infectious Diseases at Boston Children’s Hospital. “We are working on making the process faster and more affordable.”

A variety of new strategies are emerging to facilitate vaccine development and delivery:

1. Modular approaches to vaccine production

The Multiple Antigen Presenting System (MAPS) is one innovative modular method to more efficiently produce vaccines that provide robust immunity.

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New Human Neuron Core to analyze ‘disease in a dish’

Human Neuron CoreLast week was a good week for neuroscience. Boston Children’s Hospital received nearly $2.2 million from the Massachusetts Life Sciences Center (MLSC) to create a Human Neuron Core. The facility will allow researchers at Boston Children’s and beyond to study neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and neurological disorders directly in living, functioning neurons made from patients with these disorders.

“Nobody’s tried to make human neurons available in a core facility like this before,” says Robin Kleiman, PhD, Director of Preclinical Research for Boston Children’s Translational Neuroscience Center (TNC), who will oversee the Core along with neurologist and TNC director Mustafa Sahin, MD, PhD, and Clifford Woolf, PhD, of Boston Children’s F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center. “Neurons are really complicated, and there are many different subtypes. Coming up with standard operating procedures for making each type of neuron reproducibly is labor-intensive and expensive.”

Patient-derived neurons are ideal for modeling disease and for preclinical screening of potential drug candidates, including existing, FDA-approved drugs. Created from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) made from a small skin sample, the lab-created human neurons capture disease physiology at the cellular level in a way that neurons from rats or mice cannot.

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What we’ve been reading: Week of March 16, 2015

 

(government_press_office/Flickr)
(government_press_office/Flickr)

Scientists Call for a Summit on Gene-Edited Babies (MIT Technology Review)

Tools like CRISPR could give us the power to alter humanity’s genetic future. A group of senior American scientists and ethicists have called for a moratorium any attempts to create genetically engineered children using these technologies until there can be a robust debate.

Meet the healthcare company that won Mark Cuban’s heart at SXSW (MedCity News)

CareaLine, founded by the parents of a young girl who died of cancer, won over audience members’ hearts and investors’ wallets during SXSW 2015’s Impact Pediatrics competition.

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Embracing the future of pediatric quality measurement

Pediatric quality of care researchWhile studying quality of care in the 1990s, Mark Schuster, MD, PhD found that few studies on pediatric quality had been conducted. The typical explanation that he was given was that the federal government wasn’t funding research into quality measures because children on Medicaid don’t drive federal health-care costs nearly as much as adults on Medicaid and Medicare do.

But Schuster, chief of General Pediatrics at Boston Children’s Hospital and William Berenberg Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, believes there have been other challenges in measuring care quality in children. In an acceptance speech upon receiving the 2014 Douglas K. Richardson Award for Perinatal and Pediatric Healthcare Research, published today in the journal Pediatrics (PDF), Schuster points to factors including the relative rarity of many pediatric conditions and that many of the benefits of excellent pediatric care are not observed until adulthood.

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How Skype and FaceTime inspired remote care for home-ventilated patients

Casavant telemedicine home ventilationFrom a series on researchers and innovators at Boston Children’s Hospital. At left, David Casavant demos TeleCAPE at a Boston Children’s Hospital Innovators Showcase.

It is said that necessity is the mother of invention, so when David Casavant, MD, observed his teenagers routinely using FaceTime and Skype to connect with friends, he had a lightbulb moment. Could videoconferencing help him support his patients—children and young adults who require mechanical ventilation in their homes?

“It just seemed obvious,” says Casavant, a physician in the Boston Children’s Hospital’s CAPE (Critical Care, Anesthesia and Perioperative Extension & Home Ventilation) program, part of the Division of Critical Care Medicine. “In my work we are always weighing the risk versus the benefit to the patient. It’s easy for ambulatory patients to swing by their primary care office, get a prescription or go for an x-ray, but that’s not the case for patients who have to have their oxygen, their suction or their ventilator. If you don’t have to put them on the road you are better off not to.”

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Melanopsin, lighting and you

color spectrum melanopsin
A deep-dive view of non-image vision may refine our understanding of light and health.

Back in the day, the 1980s to be specific, there was a brief fad around amber-on-black computer screens (as opposed to green-on-black or white-on-black) for supposed ergonomic reasons. My computer had one, along with its 5 ¼” floppy drives (remember those?).

More recently, with kids texting at night and people logging late hours on computers and devices, there’s been a recognition that artificial light at night is bad for sleep and disruptive to physiology overall, with blue light increasingly recognized as the culprit.

That’s given birth to some new fads. You can now download programs to eliminate blue light from your computer screen at night or buy amber-tinted glasses for computing and gaming to “filter the harsh spectra” of light. Airlines are using “mood” lighting to mimic sunrises and sunsets, which supposedly reduces jetlag.

In a paper in Neuron last week, Alan Emanuel and Michael Do, PhD, of the F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center at Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School provide some science to support and inform these fads, as well as the use of light therapy for conditions like seasonal affective disorder.

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Can the collaborative economy work in health care?

Airbnb Uber model health care
Airbnb and Uber have disrupted the hotel and taxi industries by finding and tapping unused assets. What's in store for medicine?

David Altman is manager of marketing and communications in Boston Children’s Hospital’s Technology and Innovation Development Office.

Robin Chase, co-founder of Zipcar and current CEO of Buzzcar, envisions collaboration as the future of the world’s economy. Her concept, PeersIncorporated, brings excess capacity of consumer goods or assets—such as unused time or untapped data—to online platforms and apps where consumers (“peers”) provide insights that drive business growth.

Speaking recently at Boston Children’s Hospital, Chase elaborated on the concept of excess capacity, which is the basis of Buzzcar. Typically, families pay an average of $9,000 a year—$25 a day—for cars they use only 5 percent of the time. That unused time represents value and economic potential. Buzzcar’s platform harnesses that unused capacity, allowing multiple peers to supply and book cars on an easy-to-use website at a low cost.

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