Stories about: Uncategorized

My work, my life, my innovations: Bruce Zetter, PhD

Though Bruce Zetter, PhD, Charles Nowiszewski Professor of Cancer Biology in Boston Children’s Hospital’s Department of Surgery, has had a lifelong passion for science, he once toyed with an alternate career—as an actor. But he stuck with his love for science and pursued a career in academic medicine. Countless patients, students, business partners and mentees have benefitted from that decision.

Read on to sort through a few artifacts from Zetter’s work and life, and if you want to hear more from him, make plans to attend Boston Children’s Global Pediatric Innovation Summit + Awards 2015,  Nov. 9 + 10, where Zetter will be the emcee for the third year.

 

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Detecting Ebola within minutes: A treatment and containment game changer

Ebola

Tests for detecting Ebola in the blood can take anywhere from 12 hours to four days to yield results. But a recent study published in The Lancet reveals that a new point-of-care test can accurately determine results in mere minutes—another step toward potentially controlling the spread of Ebola.

Nira Pollock, MD, PhD, senior author of the paper and associate medical director of the Infectious Diseases Diagnostic Laboratory at Boston Children’s Hospital, along with researchers from Harvard Medical School and Partners In Health, showed that a commercially developed rapid diagnostic test (RDT), called the Corgenix ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit, was as sensitive as a conventional laboratory-based method used for clinical testing during the recent outbreak in Sierra Leone.

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How our neutrophils might sabotage wound healing in diabetes

When you get a cut or a scrape, your body jumps into action, mobilizing a complicated array of cells and factors to stem bleeding, keep the wound bacteria-free and launch the healing process.

For most of us, that process is complete in a couple of weeks. But for many people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, delayed wound healing can have permanent consequences. For example, between 15 and 25 percent of diabetes patients develop chronic foot ulcers. Those ulcers are the root cause of roughly two-thirds of lower limb amputations related to diabetes.

Why don’t these wounds close? Blame a perfect storm of diabetic complications, such as reduced blood flow, neuropathy and impaired signaling between cells. According to research by Denisa Wagner, PhD, of Boston Children’s Hospital’s Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, a poorly understood feature of our immune system’s neutrophils may be one more ingredient in the storm.

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Crisis Care: A unique suicide prevention app

teen with phone

More than 100,000 smartphone apps are currently categorized as “health apps.” There are apps for physical health—apps that log work-outs, track nutritional intake, and monitor sleeping patterns. And there are apps for mental health—apps that identify your mood, guide meditation and alleviate depression. But can an app tackle a public health problem as serious as teen suicide?

Turns out, mobile phones and suicide prevention may not be such strange bedfellows.

Elizabeth Wharff, PhD, and Kimberly O’Brien, PhD, clinician-researchers from the Department of Psychiatry at Boston Children’s Hospital, specialize in working with adolescents who struggle with suicidal thoughts. Noting that teens are already turning to their phones whenever they need something, they believe a mobile app may be the perfect platform to support them through tough times. Wharff feels that existing apps designed to help with depression and anxiety lack something crucial: parent mode.

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What we’ve been reading: Week of May 25, 2015

paszczak000/Flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/paszczak000/3311707373/
(paszczak000/Flickr)

The White House draws the line against CRISPR/Cas9-designed embryos (FierceBiotechResearch)

Responding to Chinese scientists’ attempt to use CRISPR gene editing technology to edit human embryos, the White House spoke up, saying, “altering the human germline for clinical purposes is a line that should not be crossed at this time.”

Smartphones put medical diagnostics in your hands (Chemical & Engineering News)

Could smartphones help monitor disease outbreaks? Screen patients for cancer? Diagnose HIV? With the right attachments and data, the answer could one day be yes.

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What we’ve been reading: Week of May 11, 2015

child reading
Cystic Fibrosis Drug Wins Approval of F.D.A. Advisory Panel (New York Times)
A federal advisory committee on Tuesday recommended approval of Orkambi, a drug from Vertex Pharmaceuticals that might eventually help nearly half of patients with cystic fibrosis.

Seasonal Genes (The Scientist)
Our immune systems vary with the seasons, according to a study that could help explain why certain conditions such as heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis are aggravated in winter while people tend to be healthier in the summer.

Common vitamin reduces recurrence of some skin cancers (The Washington Post)
Nicotinamide, a cheap over-the-counter vitamin, appears to reduce recurrence of some common skin cancers associated with sun exposure for people who have had them before, researchers at the University of Sydney report.

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Looking beyond allergies: Does IgE keep a wary eye out for cancer?

watchdog IgE allergies cancer

Allergies of all kinds—to food, pollen, pets, etc.—can be blamed on a kind of antibody called IgE. Cousins of the more common IgG, IgE antibodies work with immune cells called mast cells to trigger the symptoms we associate with an allergic reaction (itchy skin, runny nose, closing throat, etc.).

Edda Fiebiger, PhD, has been studying IgE and allergies for years, and has noticed a curious association in several epidemiologic studies: people with high levels of IgE in their blood (as in people with allergies) have a lower risk of certain cancers. This—and the discovery of human IgE antibodies that bind to tumor antigens—suggests that IgE may help protect the body from cancer, and has given rise to a whole new field dubbed AllergoOncology.

But how does it work? In a recent paper in Cell Reports, Fiebiger and her colleagues reveal a pathway by which IgE may keep watch for tumor cells, one that’s totally separate from its allergic role.

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What we’ve been reading: Week of April 20, 2015

(Stougard/Wikimedia Commons)
(Stougard/Wikimedia Commons)

Chinese team reports gene-editing human embryos (MIT Technology Review)
Using the CRISPR technique, the researchers attempted to correct the gene for thalassemia in fertilized eggs. The experiment showed that the technique is far from ready from clinical use, and added new fuel to the already-fiery debate over editing genes in human embryos.

How Apple is building an ecosystem for your body (Fast Company)
The company’s HealthKit and ResearchKit together may form the core of a new “digital ecosystem” for health data and digital medicine, just as iTunes did for music and movies. But a lot of unanswered questions remain that could affect Apple’s chances for success in the health arena.

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What we’ve been reading: Week of April 13, 2015

reading april 2

Can a smart vest help people who are deaf “hear” speech? (The Atlantic)
Inventor and neuroscientist David Eagleman has created a vest that transmits spoken words into vibrations in a vest that can be felt and translated- or effectively “heard”- by the wearer.

Electrified: Adventures in transcranial direct current stimulation (The New Yorker)
Neuroscientists at the University of New Mexico have developed a brain stimulation therapy they believe may have a whole host of benefits, from chronic pain relief to improved memory function. Our own Alexander Rotenberg, MD, PhD, weighed in on this technique’s potential applications in pediatrics in a Vector post last summer.

The problem with satisfied patients (The Atlantic)
When patient satisfaction surveys are directly tied to federal funding, hospital administrators put extra effort into making patients happy. But does happier always mean healthier?

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First six months of life are best for stimulating child heart growth

heart-regeneration-study2
In these sample sections of mouse heart, the color blue signifies scar tissue. Damage from scarring was minimized by early administration of the drug neuregulin.

Developing a child-centric approach to treating heart failure is no easy task. For one thing, the underlying causes of decreased cardiac function in children vastly differ from those in adults. While most adults with heart failure have suffered a heart attack, heart failure in children is more likely the result of congenital heart disease (CHD), or a structural defect present at birth that impairs heart function. And most therapies designed for adults haven’t proven equally effective in children.

Stimulating heart muscle cells to regenerate is one way cardiac researchers at Boston Children’s Hospital’s Translational Research Center hope to restore function to children’s ailing hearts. In this area, children actually have an advantage over adults: their young heart cells are better suited for regrowth.

Reporting in the April 1 Science Translational Medicine, Brian Polizzotti, PhD, and Bernhard Kuhn, MD, demonstrate that not only does the drug neuregulin trigger heart cell regeneration and improve overall heart function in newborn mice, but its effects are most potent for humans within the first six months of life.

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