My work, my life, my innovations: Bruce Zetter, PhD

Though Bruce Zetter, PhD, Charles Nowiszewski Professor of Cancer Biology in Boston Children’s Hospital’s Department of Surgery, has had a lifelong passion for science, he once toyed with an alternate career—as an actor. But he stuck with his love for science and pursued a career in academic medicine. Countless patients, students, business partners and mentees have benefitted from that decision.

Read on to sort through a few artifacts from Zetter’s work and life, and if you want to hear more from him, make plans to attend Boston Children’s Global Pediatric Innovation Summit + Awards 2015,  Nov. 9 + 10, where Zetter will be the emcee for the third year.

 

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NIH funding snapshots: Your tax dollars at work

2014NIHFundingFunding drives biomedical research, and research drives treatment innovation. Access to funds, particularly National Institute of Health (NIH) awards, is critical to move research forward. The 21st Century Cures Act, which passed the U.S. House on July 10, could give the NIH $8.75 billion more in new grants to disperse over the next five years, the largest increase since the Recovery Act of 2009.

How would those funds be used? Can research find a better way to treat patients? Prevent disease? Disseminate advances in medicine?

In 2014, Boston Children’s led the U.S. in NIH awards. Here’s a look at how a few research teams are leveraging NIH funding to improve care for both children and adults.

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Supercharged marrow transplant: Zebrafish reveal drugs that aid engraftment

Zebrafish stem cell engraftment bone marrow
(Jonathan Henninger and Vera Binder)

Bone marrow transplantation, a.k.a. stem cell transplantation, can offer a cure for certain cancers, blood disorders, immune deficiencies and even metabolic disorders. But it’s a highly toxic procedure, especially when a closely matched marrow donor can’t be found. Using stem cells from umbilical cord blood banked after childbirth could open up many more matching possibilities, making transplantation safer.

Except for one problem. “Ninety percent of cord blood units can’t be used because they’re too small,” says Leonard Zon, MD, who directs the Stem Cell Research Program at Boston Children’s.

But what if the blood stem cells in those units could be supercharged to engraft more efficiently in the bone marrow and grow their numbers faster? That’s been the quest of the Zon lab for the past seven years, in partnership with a see-through zebrafish called Casper.

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My work, my life: John Brownstein, PhD

Boston Children’s Hospital’s new chief innovation officer, John Brownstein, PhD, is an epidemiologist by training and a founding father of the growing field of digital epidemiology—the use of digital (especially social and mobile) data from a variety of sources to detect and track disease and promote health. As co-founder of HealthMap and director of the Computational Epidemiology Group in the hospital’s Computational Health Informatics Program, he infuses his work into many aspects of his life—along with a healthy helping of hot sauce.

Hover over the icons in the photo below to learn about the things in Brownstein’s phone, office and life that keep him going.

Brownstein will be one of four panelists discussing Patient Engagement in a Big Data World at Boston Children’s Global Pediatric Innovation Summit + Awards 2015. Learn more about the summit and register to attend.

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Daniel Kohane, MD, PhD, at TEDMED: “Smart vehicles for safer medications”

“The drugs that I take don’t just go to the places in my body they’re supposed to go to do the things they do. They actually go everywhere. And what they do in those other places can be whatever.”

With those words, Daniel Kohane, MD, PhD—director of the Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery at Boston Children’s Hospital—launched into a TEDMED talk about technologies that get drugs to where they need to go with much greater precision, like:

“Progress in this field is limited only by the imagination of the investigators and, to some degree, by reality,” says Kohane, who also sees patients in Boston Children’s Department of Critical Care Medicine. “You can achieve really big things by thinking really small.”

Click the image above to watch his whole talk.

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New and improved device shows promise for pediatric heart surgery

2000px-Hypoplastic_left_heart_syndrome.svg
In the Norwood procedure for HLHS, a graft creates a conduit between the right ventricle and the aorta, diverting blood flow from the underdeveloped left ventricle. But that graft can wear out. (BLUE represents oxygen-poor blood; RED, oxygen-rich blood; PURPLE, a mixture of the two.)

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare but serious form of congenital heart disease that leaves the left pumping chamber (ventricle) of the heart severely underdeveloped. Children born with HLHS can’t pump enough oxygenated blood from their heart to the rest of their body and need surgery as soon as possible to survive. Treatment ultimately involves three corrective surgeries throughout the infant and toddler years.

The first surgery, known as the Norwood procedure, is the riskiest of the three. Ideally performed within the first week of life, the procedure re-routes the heart’s plumbing to ensure enough oxygenated blood is circulated while the child grows big enough for the second surgery. A device called a graft is used to connect the fully-functional right ventricle to the aorta, bypassing the stunted left ventricle, for proper blood flow. However, with each ventricular contraction, the graft gets squeezed, which can cause it to shift or lose its shape over time. Repeat interventions to adjust the graft are often needed.

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Risk mitigation made easy: Apps make hospital safety proactive

A environmental health & safety hospital hot zone
A hospital ‘hot zone’

Hospitals are among the most hazardous workplaces in the U.S. In 2011, according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 253,700 accidents were reported, an average of 6.8 work-related injuries for every 100 full-time employees. Rates of injuries reported to OSHA are decreasing in all industries except for hospitals, whose rates are double the average.

Could a set of digital apps help identify and reduce occupational and environmental risks in a quick and efficient manner? That is what Nick Kielbania, MS, CSP, CHMM, director of Environmental Health & Safety (EH&S) and Adrian Hudson, PhD, MCompSc, principal software architect at Boston Children’s Hospital, set out to create.

Their web-based solution, enabled for Apple and Android devices, is called the BCH Environmental Health and Safety Application Suite. Designed to aid hospital emergency response, safety and support services, the applications encompass fire, clinical, research, construction and environmental safety, with additional apps for on-call and administrative personnel.

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MRI-powered ‘millirobots’ could swim around the body, drive needles, puncture tissues

(noppasit TH/Shutterstock)
(noppasit TH/Shutterstock)

MRI is a staple of surgical imaging, but it has the potential to do much more than take pictures. In 2011, bioengineer Pierre Dupont, PhD, and colleagues demonstrated that an MRI machine’s magnetic field could power a motor strong enough to control a robotic instrument, in this case driving a needle into an organ to do a biopsy.

But Dupont, head of the Pediatric Cardiac Bioengineering Lab at Boston Children’s Hospital, wants to go further. “We had this idea, admittedly fanciful: What if you could swim robots through the body?” he says. “If you could inject something systemically and steer it to just hit your target, that would be a cool application.”

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Does autism stress families’ chromosomes?

telomeres autismThe ends of our chromosomes have little caps called telomeres that keep our DNA from degrading as our cells divide. Telomere length is partly determined by genetics. However, telomeres also shorten as we age and as a result of health conditions, including stress—as in institutionalized children in Romania and women caring for children with chronic illnesses.

An intriguing new study in the July Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry finds shortened telomeres not just in children with autism (confirming a recent study from China) but also in their infant siblings and their mothers. An effect was also seen in fathers, but it didn’t reach statistical significance.

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Gene therapy restores hearing in deaf mice

A closeup of the sensory hair bundles in the cochlea (inverted v's), each containing 50 to 100 microvilli tipped with TMC proteins. Cell bodies are below the bundles. (Gwenaelle S. Geleoc & Artur A. Indzhykulian)
The inverted V’s above are sensory hair bundles in the ear, each containing 50 to 100 microvilli tipped with TMC proteins. Gene therapy restores hearing by providing working copies of those proteins. (Gwenaelle Geleoc & Artur Indzhykulian)

More than 70 different genes are known to cause deafness when mutated. Jeffrey Holt, PhD, envisions a day when patients with hearing loss have their genome sequenced and their hearing restored by gene therapy. A proof-of-principle study published today by the journal Science Translational Medicine takes a clear step in that direction, restoring hearing in deaf mice.

“Our gene therapy protocol is not yet ready for clinical trials—we need to tweak it a bit more—but in the not-too-distant future we think it could be developed for therapeutic use in humans,” says Holt, a scientist in the F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center at Boston Children’s Hospital and an associate professor of Otolaryngology at Harvard Medical School.

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