A child’s esophagus can
become damaged through physical trauma or ingestion of toxic chemicals or
foreign objects — such as oven and drain cleaners, lye, laundry and dishwasher
detergents and batteries. Depending on the substance and the amount ingested,
children can develop esophageal strictures (scar tissue that narrows the esophagus) or esophageal perforations (holes in the
esophagus). These problems can also be complications of surgery for esophageal atresia, in which a baby is born without part of the esophagus.
Children with esophageal perforations have traditionally been treated with long courses of antibiotics and not eating by mouth. More recently, perforations have been treated with stents, and strictures with a combination of dilation and stenting. But stenting, while it can be effective, requires up to eight weeks of therapy and can have complications such as pain, retching and local pressure necrosis, a type of ulcer that may worsen perforation. Such concerns have led researchers to investigate alternative treatments for perforation and strictures.
In small doses, the anesthetic ketamine is a mildly hallucinogenic party drug known as “Special K.” In even smaller doses, ketamine relieves depression — abruptly and sometimes dramatically, steering some people away from suicidal thoughts. Studies indicate that ketamine works in 60 to 70 percent of people not helped by slower-acting SSRIs, the usual drugs for depression.
Two ketamine-like drugs are in the clinical pipeline, and, as of this week, one appears close to FDA approval. With no significant new antidepressant in more than 30 years, anticipation is high. Yet no one has pinned down how low-dose ketamine works. Studies have implicated various brain neurotransmitters and their receptors — serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA receptors, opioid receptors — but findings have been contradictory.
“We felt it was time to figure this out once and for all,” says neuroscientist Takao Hensch, PhD.
Many blood disorders, immune disorders and metabolic disorders can be cured with a transplant of hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem cells, also known as bone marrow transplant. But patients must first receive high-dose, whole-body chemotherapy and/or radiation to deplete their own defective stem cells, providing space for the donor cells to engraft. These “conditioning” regimens are highly toxic: they wipe out the immune system, raising infection risk, and can cause anemia, infertility, other organ damage and cancers. And when the donor isn’t an exact match, patients’ immune systems must be suppressed for prolonged periods to prevent rejection.
As a result, most patients either don’t receive a transplant
or must endure serious side effects. But if two new studies bear out in
clinical trials, a far gentler conditioning treatment could enable stem-cell
transplants for a much wider range of disorders, even possibly from unmatched
Most of us have somewhere around a trillion tiny platelets zooming around our bloodstreams. Joseph Italiano, PhD, of Boston Children’s Hospital’s Vascular Biology Program, calls them the “Swiss Army knives of the blood.” In addition to their key role in clotting, platelets are important in immunity, wound healing, chemical delivery, blood vessel development and more.
At healthcare facilities, platelets are in constant demand for patients with blood diseases, or those receiving radiation or chemotherapy for cancer. But unlike other blood products, platelets can’t be stored for more than a few days. If there’s a snowstorm or other emergency preventing donors from giving platelets, a hospital can easily run out. So researchers have been trying to make platelets in a lab setting.
Two teams at Boston Children’s Hospital are tackling the problem in slightly different ways. …
Scientists have known since the 1800s what happens to a totally crushed peripheral nerve in animals: the damaged axons are broken down in a process called Wallerian degeneration, allowing healthy ones to regrow. But humans rarely suffer complete axonal damage. Instead, axons tend to be partially damaged, causing neuropathic pain — a difficult-to-treat, chronic pain associated with nerve trauma, chemotherapy and diabetes.
Almost 10 percent of pediatric deaths occur suddenly and without explanation. In this terrible situation, the first question many parents have is “Why?” For most, answers never come.
Childhood deaths that cannot be explained by traditional autopsy and death-scene investigation are referred to as sudden unexplained deaths in pediatrics (SUDP). In children, these deaths are more common than those from either cardiac disease or cancer and typically occur in infancy or early childhood.
Endometriosis is a common
gynecological condition that may affect more than 1 in 10 reproductive-age
women. Yet, there’s very little research into the disease and limited options
for treatment. A team in the Vascular
Biology Program at Boston Children’s Hospital is trying to
Decades ago, discoveries about the brain’s intricate anatomy were made with careful dissection and drawings. Today, they’re made with super-resolution imaging and massive computing power capable of handling hundreds of terabytes of data.
In this week’s Science, a team out of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Janelia Research Campus of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), Harvard Medical School (HMS) and Boston Children’s Hospital, describes a technique capable of imaging whole brains at exquisitely high resolution, allowing scientists to distinguish tiny sub-cellular structures. …
An estimated 8 million children worldwide live in institutions where they experience neglect and deprivation. Last fall, a study of children reared in Romanian orphanages reported high levels of mental health problems when they reached adolescence. In particular, they had more difficult behaviors such as rule-breaking, excessive arguing with authority figures, stealing or assaulting peers. But if they were placed early with carefully vetted foster families through the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) , these problems were reduced.
A new BEIP study, published yesterday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, examined cognitive functioning. It found that institutionalized children, at ages 8 and 16, also have impaired memory and executive functioning compared with peers placed early in foster homes. …
Because influenza is so contagious, it’s been challenging to track and forecast flu activity in real time as people move about and travel. While the CDC continuously monitors patient visits for flu-like illness in the U.S., its information can lag by up to two weeks. A new study led by the Computational Health Informatics Program (CHIP) at Boston Children’s Hospital combined multiple approaches, providing what appear to be the most accurate local flu predictions to date. …