Author: Haley Bridger

Super suppressor: Boosting a gene that stifles tumor growth

Researchers have packaged a tumor suppressor into a therapeutic nanoparticle.
Researchers have packaged a tumor suppressor into a therapeutic nanoparticle. IMAGE: ISLAM, ET AL.

Most of the time, cancer cells do a combination of two things: they overexpress genes that drive tumor growth and they lose normal genes that typically suppress tumors. No two tumors are exactly alike, but some combination of these two effects is usually what results in cancer. Now, for the first time, researchers have shown that it’s possible to treat cancer by delivering a gene that naturally suppresses tumors.

Researchers from Boston Children’s Hospital, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center combined their cancer biology and nanomaterials expertise and developed a therapeutic capable of delivering a tumor suppressor gene known as PTEN, the loss of which can allow tumors to grow unchecked.

In several preclinical models, their PTENboosting therapeutic was able to inhibit tumor growth. Their findings were published yesterday in Nature Biomedical Engineering.

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Why does a new class of drugs work so well against melanoma?

nivolumab, pembrolizumab and melanoma
Anti-PD-1 antibodies may deliver a one-two punch in melanoma

Recent clinical trials for patients with advanced melanoma have found that a new class of drugs—anti-PD-1 antibodies—can elicit an unprecedented response rate. In the last year, the FDA gave accelerated approval to two anti-PD-1 antibodies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, for patients with advanced melanoma (including Jimmy Carter) who are no longer responding to other drugs. And there’s growing evidence that this class of drugs may be effective in treating other forms of cancer.

Anti-PD-1 antibodies target a receptor on activated T cells, known as the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor. Tumor cells stimulate this inhibitory receptor to dodge immune attack, whereas anti-PD-1 antibodies block the same pathway, “waking up” the immune cells so they can attack the cancer. The drugs have been hailed as one of the first cancer immunotherapy success stories.

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