Stories about: adenocarcinoma

Organs-on-chips reveal breathing’s critical role in lung cancer development

Image of lung cancer cells grown alongside human lung small airway cells inside an organ-on-a-chip
Inside view of a lung cancer chip: Lung adenocarcinoma cells are grown as a tumor cell colony (blue) next to normal human lung small airway cells (purple). Credit: Wyss Institute at Harvard University

One of the biggest challenges facing cancer researchers — and lots of other medical researchers, in fact — is that experimental models cannot perfectly replicate human diseases in the laboratory.

That’s why human Organs-on-Chips, small devices that mimic human organ environments in an affordable and lifelike manner, have quickly been taken up into use by scientists in academic and industry labs and are being tested by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Now, the chips have helped discover an important link between breathing mechanics and lung cancer behavior.

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Curbing metastasis in lung cancer by taking a cue from the nervous system

What's drawing lung cancer cells to migrate? (Juan Gaertner/Shutterstock)
What’s drawing lung cancer cells to migrate? (Juan Gaertner/Shutterstock)

Ninety percent of lung cancer deaths are caused by the tumor’s spread—or metastasis—to other organs. Researchers have now discovered an approach to blocking metastasis in the most common type of lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, that potentially could be added to chemotherapy treatments aimed at shrinking the primary tumor.

Kerstin Sinkevicius, PhD, a research fellow at Boston Children’s Hospital, started with this question: Is there anything in a lung tumor’s environment that makes it metastasize? She sampled tissue from human lymph nodes—the first place cancers typically spread to—to see if the cells there were secreting anything that might lure cancer cells to migrate.

One chemical stood out: a growth factor called brain-derived neurotrophic factor, or BDNF. Secreted near maturing neurons, BDNF is best known for its role in stimulating the developing nervous system.

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