Stories about: bacteremia

Protecting the brain in newborn bloodstream infections

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Preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units, particularly those with catheters and intravenous lines, are at high risk for bacteremia—bloodstream infections that can cause lasting brain injury. A new study may change how people think about these infections, suggesting that inflammation is as important to address as the infection itself.

Using a novel mouse model of bloodstream infections in newborns, infectious disease physician-researcher Ofer Levy, MD, PhD, demonstrates that bacteremia can damage the brain even when the bacteria don’t actually get into the central nervous system. Findings were published online last week in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

“There has been a lot of indirect epidemiologic evidence for a link between bacteremia, inflammation and cerebral injury, but it showed only a correlation, not causation,” says Levy. “Here we demonstrate directly in an animal model that inflammation alone can cause brain injury in newborns with bacteremia, even without entry of the bacteria to the central nervous system.”

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New universal pneumococcal vaccine advances in early tests

Streptococcus pneumoniae in spinal fluid
Streptococcus pneumoniae in spinal fluid

Serious pneumococcal infections – pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis – are responsible for up to 11 percent of child deaths on the planet. Vaccines exist, such as Prevnar, but they have two big shortcomings.

First, they’re designed to help people build antibodies against specific strains of pneumococcus. But new strains keep emerging, and most of those circulating in the developing world aren’t covered.

Second, they’re too expensive for most developing countries.

Six years ago, Richard Malley, of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Children’s Hospital Boston, and Marc Lipsitch of the Harvard School of Public Health, showed that there is another defense against pneumococcus that doesn’t care what strain it’s encountering. And, despite what textbooks were saying, it has nothing to do with antibodies.

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