Stories about: blood

SIDS associated with higher blood serotonin levels

A baby sleeping on its back, which is the safest sleeping position to prevent SIDS
The Safe to Sleep campaign has helped reduce SIDS deaths, but underlying causes for SIDS have largely remained mysterious.

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) accounts for the greatest share of deaths in children between the ages of 1 and 12 months. What if a blood test could explain a third of SIDS deaths – and in the future, help prevent them? New findings by a Boston Children’s Hospital team show that an increased level of serotonin in blood serum may underpin some SIDS deaths and suggests the possibility that this biological vulnerability may one day be detected in the blood of living infants.

While there are known risk factors for SIDS — such as sleeping face-down or on soft surfaces — how and why such seemingly minor threats kill some children, and not others, remains a mystery.

“Research on the underlying pathology of SIDS is critical to further our understanding of the biological mechanisms contributing to a SIDS death,” says Robin Haynes, PhD, a researcher in the Department of Pathology at Boston Children’s Hospital.

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Discovering a rare anemia in time to save an infant’s life

Illustration of the erythropoietin hormone. A newly-discovered genetic mutation, which switches one amino acid in EPO's structure, resulted in two cases of rare anemia.
An illustration showing the structure of a cell-signaling cytokine called erythropoietin (EPO). It has long been thought that when EPO binds with its receptor, EPOR, it functions like an on/off switch, triggering red blood cell production. New findings suggest that this process is more nuanced than previously thought; even slight variations to cytokines like EPO can cause disease.

While researching a rare blood disorder called Diamond-Blackfan anemia, scientists stumbled upon an even rarer anemia caused by a previously-unknown genetic mutation. During their investigation, the team of scientists — from the Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT and Yale University — had the relatively unusual opportunity to develop an “on-the-fly” therapy.

As they analyzed the genes of one boy who had died from the newly-discovered blood disorder, the team’s findings allowed them to help save the life of his infant sister, who was also born with the same genetic mutation. The results were recently reported in Cell.

“We had a unique opportunity here to do research, and turn it back to a patient right away,” says Vijay Sankaran, MD, PhD, the paper’s co-corresponding author and a principal investigator at the Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. “It’s incredibly rewarding to be able to bring research full circle to impact a patient’s life.”

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Transfusing engineered red blood cells to protect against autoimmune disease

Red blood cells, pictured here, could be engineered to protect against autoimmune disease
Transfusions of engineered red blood cells could help prevent and/or treat autoimmune disease.

Autoimmune disease is usually treated using general immunosuppressants. But this non-targeted therapy leaves the body more susceptible to infection and other life-threatening diseases.

Now, scientists at Boston Children’s Hospital, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research think they may have found a targeted way to protect the body from autoimmune disease. Their approach, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, uses transfusions of engineered red blood cells to re-train the immune system. Early experiments in mice have already shown that the approach can prevent — and even reverse — clinical signs of two autoimmune diseases: a multiple-sclerosis (MS)-like condition and Type 1 diabetes.

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Biomarkers for all

Just about any measurable molecule that changes with health and disease could be a biomarker. (David Guo's Master/Flickr)

Your doctor has a lot of tools to detect, diagnose and monitor disease: x-rays, MRIs, angiography, blood tests, biopsies…the list goes on.

What would be great would be the ability to test for disease in a way where there’s no or low pain (not invasive) and lots of gain (actionable data about the disease process itself, its progression and the success of treatment).

That’s where biomarkers come in.

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