Stories about: Charles Nelson

When neglected children enter adolescence: A cautionary tale about family separation

child neglect / child deprivation
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Many migrant children separated from their parents at the U.S. border, some of them very young, have landed in shelters where they often experience stress, neglect and minimal social and cognitive stimulation. The latest findings of the long-running Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), involving children in Romanian orphanages, tells a cautionary tale about the psychiatric and social risks of long-term deprivation and separation from parents.

BEIP has shown that children reared in very stark institutional settings, with severe social deprivation and neglect, are at risk for cognitive problems, depression, anxiety, disruptive behavior and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. But BEIP has also shown that placing children with quality foster families can mitigate some of these effects, if it’s done early.

The new BEIP study, published this week by JAMA Psychiatry, asked what happens to the mental health of institutionalized children as they transition to adolescence. Outcomes at ages 8, 12 and 16 suggest diverging trajectories between children who remained in institutions versus those randomly chosen for placement with carefully vetted foster families.

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Diagnosing autism in infants? EEG algorithms make accurate predictions

autism EEGs
EEG nets are easily slipped over an infant’s head and cause no discomfort. (Credit: Nelson Lab)

The earlier autism can be diagnosed, the more effective interventions typically are. But the signs are often subtle or can be misinterpreted at young ages. As a result, many children aren’t diagnosed until age 2 or even older. Now, a study shows that electroencephalograms (EEGs), which measure the brain’s electrical activity, can accurately predict or rule out autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in babies as young as 3 months old. It appears today in Scientific Reports.

The beauty of EEG is that it’s already used in many pediatric neurology or developmental pediatric settings. “EEGs are low-cost, non-invasive and relatively easy to incorporate into well-baby checkups,” says study co-author Charles Nelson, PhD, director of the Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience at Boston Children’s Hospital. “Their reliability in predicting whether a child will develop autism raises the possibility of intervening very early, well before clear behavioral symptoms emerge.”

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Early adversity and the brain: Bangladeshi children may provide lessons

neuroimaging adversity Bangladesh
Children from the neighborhood around the neuroimaging lab

Dhaka, Bangladesh, is a megacity, one of the world’s fastest growing. By 2025, the U.N. predicts, Dhaka will be home to more than 20 million people as rural migrants swell its population. Many residents live in extreme poverty, crowded into dense, hot, chaotic slums with open sewers and corrugated housing.

While traditional global health programs have focused on curbing infectious disease, low-resource settings like Dhaka are also coming to be seen as “living laboratories” for investigating how adversity affects children’s brain development. Last year, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation awarded a two-year, $2.5 million grant to Charles Nelson, PhD, to bring the first fully equipped neuroimaging facility to Bangladesh.

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