Cytokines are small proteins produced by the body’s cells that have a big impact on our immune system. Researchers at Boston Children’s Hospital believe that modulating their presence in our bodies could be the key to improving outcomes in life-threatening cases of trauma, hemorrhage and many other conditions including sepsis, which alone impacts nearly one million Americans each year.
The reason? Cells essentially use cytokines to talk to one another. In response to their surroundings, cells release different types of cytokines that encourage inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects on the body. Infection or trauma causes cells to pump out more cytokines that produce inflammation. Altogether, an escalating chorus of cytokines can sometimes tip a person’s body into overwhelming inflammation that can turn fatal, which is what happens during sepsis.
But what if scientists could remove the problematic cytokines to bring the choir into perfect tune, allowing the immune system to respond with just the right amount of inflammation for healing? …
Children with high-risk, complex conditions — such as those who need ventilators to breathe — often receive disjointed care, scattered among many providers. This leads to emergency room visits and hospitalizations that could have been avoided. And once in the hospital, many children remain longer than they should for lack of good home care.
At home, families face daunting challenges. They must learn to use and maintain their children’s medical equipment and handle emergencies. They often have little or no access to home nursing services. Private insurance rarely covers home nursing for more than a limited number of hours, and Medicaid pays too little to attract qualified nurses. Many parents end up quitting their jobs to provide care. …
The Center for Disease Control estimates that influenza virus–related illnesses account for more than 200,000 U.S. hospitalizations and 12,000 deaths annually. Young children, the elderly and people with respiratory, cardiac and other chronic health conditions are at particularly high risk for being hospitalized for influenza-related complications. Until now, there has not been a clear reason to explain why some individuals become severely ill from flu and not others.
New findings published in Nature Medicine, however, might change that.
“We’ve identified a genetic variant that we believe may put people at risk of getting life-threatening influenza infections,” says Adrienne Randolph, MD, MSc, a senior associate in pediatric critical care medicine at the Boston Children’s Hospital. …
A picture may be worth a thousand words, but there’s something about holding an object in your hands that’s worth so much more. I realized this when John Meara, MD, DMD, handed me the skull of one of his patients.
I turned it over in my hands while Meara, Boston Children’s Hospital’s plastic surgeon-in-chief, pointed out features like the cranium’s asymmetric shape and the face’s malformed left orbit.
Mind you, it wasn’t actually Meara’s patient’s skull in my hands. In reality, I was holding a high-resolution, plastic 3D model printed from the patient’s CT scans.
The printer that made that model—and several other models I saw in the last month—is the centerpiece of a new in-house 3D printing service being built by Peter Weinstock, MD, PhD, and Boston Children’s Simulator Program.
Part of the problem is that the methods available for treating sepsis aren’t particularly good. Antibiotics can kill the bacteria, but that still leaves bacterial debris floating in the bloodstream, fueling the already over-excited inflammatory response.
Removing the bacteria altogether—as fast as possible—would be the better solution. At least that’s what Daniel Kohane, MD, PhD, thinks. His lab at Boston Children’s Hospital’s Division of Critical Care Medicine has developed a new approach that combines magnetic nanoparticles, a synthetic molecule (called bis-Zn-DPA) that binds to the bacteria, and magnetized microfluidic devices to pull bacteria from the blood quickly and efficiently. …
Putting children on a ventilator is sometimes necessary to save their lives, but it’s not without risks.
Doctors and nurses have to monitor ventilated patients carefully lest the machine over- or underinflate their lungs. Sometimes the very act of putting a child or adult on a ventilator can cause more lung damage (more on this in a future post). And life-threatening pathogens sometimes take advantage of a patient’s weakened state to set up shop in their lungs.
“It’s often resistant to antibiotics, and can be very difficult to treat, even deadly,” says Priebe, a critical care specialist and infectious disease researcher at Boston Children’s Hospital. “People with cystic fibrosis (CF) also get lung infections with P. aeruginosa, where it can lead to a chronic and ultimately fatal infection.”
While there have been some limited successes in creating a vaccine, researchers have struggled to develop one that can work against multiple subtypes of the bug at the same time.
Priebe thinks he may have come up with a workaround—one that makes use of a little known arm of the immune system. …