Stories about: Dario Fauza

Stem cells and birth defects: Could gastroschisis be treated in utero?

gastroschisis birth defects
Although Gianna was treated surgically, Dario Fauza, MD, hopes to someday use stem cells from the amniotic fluid, multiplied and returned to the womb, to naturally heal gastroschisis and other birth defects. (Courtesy Danielle DeCarlo)

Except when spreading awareness about her condition, 6-year-old Gianna DeCarlo prefers not to wear two-piece bathing suits because of the long vertical scar on her stomach. “Even though nobody’s said anything, she feels like she’ll be made fun of,” says her mother, Danielle. “I do what I can to make her love her body.”

Gianna doesn’t remember her three surgeries or the nasogastric tube she needed as an infant, before she was able to eat normally. She was born with gastroschisis, a striking birth defect in which the abdominal wall doesn’t seal fully during fetal development. As a result, her intestines developed outside her body. She was fed through an IV for several weeks, and was finally stitched fully shut at age 2.

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Could a simple injection fix spina bifida before birth?

spina bifida myelomeningocele
Prenatal cell therapy could avoid the need for invasive myelomeningocele surgery.

The neural tube, which becomes the spinal cord and brain, is supposed to close during the first month of prenatal development. In children with spina bifida, it doesn’t close completely, leaving the nerves of the spinal cord exposed and subject to damage. The most common and serious form of spina bifida, myelomeningocele, sets a child up for lifelong disability, causing complications such as hydrocephalus, leg paralysis, and loss of bladder and bowel control.

New research from Boston Children’s Hospital, though still in animal models, suggests that standard amniocentesis, followed by one or more injections of cells into the womb, could be enough to at least partially repair spina bifida prenatally.

Currently, the standard procedure is to operate on infants soon after delivery.

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