Disease-causing mutations can be incredibly subtle: Sometimes a single-letter change in a gene or a so-called somatic mutation (affecting only some of the body’s cells) can be enough. Researchers report this week in Neuron that both kinds of mutations — easily missed on standard blood and saliva testing — play a role in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Scientists have suspected a role for these mutations in brain disorders, but the technology to find them has only recently come online. Sampling brain tissue is the most likely way to find them, but brain biopsies aren’t something you do every day.
In their study, a team led by Christopher Walsh, MD, PhD, and Alissa D’Gama, of Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, tapped several brain banks — the NIH’s NeuroBioBank, the Oxford (U.K.) Brain Bank and Autism BrainNet — to gather brain tissue from more than 100 deceased individuals, some neurotypical and some with ASD.