Stories about: Department of Psychiatry

EEG data classify ‘autism’ into two distinct groups

[IMAGES FROM BMC NEUROLOGY (DOI 10.1186/s12883-019-1254-1)]

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5) established a single diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that includes Asperger’s syndrome, formerly considered a separate condition. The change was meant to eliminate diagnostic ambiguities, but it has encouraged schools to take a “one size fits all” approach, putting all children with autistic features in the same classroom.

This concerns many parents and professionals. “Typically, such classrooms focus on the more severely impaired, often non-verbally communicative children without helping the higher functioning children, such as those with Asperger’s,” says Heidelise Als, PhD, a psychologist at Boston Children’s Hospital.

Als and her co-investigator Frank Duffy, MD, a neurologist at Boston Children’s, decided to take an unbiased look at children diagnosed with autism, using data from their EEGs. In a paper in BMC Neurology, they conclude that autism is not a single entity, but falls into two distinct clusters — ripe for additional investigation.

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Mothers’ life experiences may affect their newborns’ telomeres — especially boys’

mother and newborn with telomeres

A new study adds to a growing body of evidence that mothers’ experiences affect their babies’ chromosomes. For the first time, it also shows a gender difference — with male babies more susceptible to maternal influence. And it even implicates experiences dating back to the mother’s own childhood.

The study, led by psychologist Michelle Bosquet Enlow, PhD, at Boston Children’s Hospital, may help explain why stress can have intergenerational effects within a family. It was published last month in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology.

The researchers enrolled 151 socioeconomically diverse mothers and their infants, all born at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. The mothers completed in-depth interviews during pregnancy. Cord blood was collected from the newborns so that their chromosomes could be examined — and in particular, the little caps at their tips known as telomeres.

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