Residents of Arkansas have been under siege by a viral threat that is typically preventable through vaccination. Since August 2016, more than 2,000 people have been stricken with mumps, an infection of the major salivary glands that causes uncomfortable facial swelling.
The disease is highly contagious but can usually be prevented by making sure that children (or adults) have had two doses of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. But strangely, about 70 percent of people in Arkansas who got sick with mumps reported that they had received their two doses of the MMR vaccine.
Ideally, we’re all supposed to see our doctor once a year for a checkup. It’s an opportunity to see how we’re doing from a health perspective, address any concerns or issues that we may have and catch any emerging issues before they become true problems.
But those visits are really only one-time, infrequent snapshots of health. They don’t give a full view of how we’re doing or feeling.
Now, think for a moment about how often you post something to Facebook or Twitter. Do you post anything about whether you’re feeling ill or down, or haven’t slept well? Ever share how far you ran, the route you biked or your number of steps for the day?
Every time you do, you’re creating a data point—another snapshot—about your health. Put those data points together, and what starts to emerge is a rich view of your health, much richer than one based on the records of your occasional medical visit.
Maimuna (Maia) Majumder is an engineering systems PhD student at MIT and computational epidemiology research fellow at HealthMap.
The 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak in the United States, which started in late December and spread to more than 100 people in just 6 weeks, has recently become the subject of substantial media scrutiny.
Measles is extremely infectious, exhibiting a basic reproductive number between 12 and 18—one of the highest recorded in history. This means that for every 1 case who gets sick in a totally susceptible population, 12 to 18 other folks get sick, too. Thankfully, when uptake of the measles vaccine is high enough in a given community, it’s almost impossible for the disease to spread—thus halting a potential outbreak in its tracks.
But what happens when vaccine rates aren’t high enough? …
A report in Preventive Medicine, authored by John Brownstein, PhD, Elaine Nsoesie, PhD and Sheryl Kluberg, MSc, judges Yelp’s usefulness as a food poisoning surveillance tool. Their efforts are part of a growing trend among public health researchers of trying to supplement traditional foodborne illness reporting with what we, the people, say on social media.
Sobering news keeps coming out of the West African Ebola outbreak. According to numbers released on August 6, the virus has sickened 1,711 and claimed 932 lives across four nations. The outbreak continues to grow, with a high risk of continued regional spread, according to a threat analysis released by HealthMap (an outbreak tracking system operated out of Boston Children’s Hospital) and Bio.Diaspora (a Canadian project that monitors communicable disease spread via international travel).
“What we’ve seen here—because of inadequate public health measures, because of general fear—is [an outbreak that] truly hasn’t been kept under control,” John Brownstein, PhD, co-founder of HealthMap and a computational epidemiologist at Boston Children’s Hospital, told ABC News. “The event started, calmed down and jumped up again. Now, we’re seeing movement into densely populated areas, which is highly concerning.”
If you’re interested in keeping tabs on the outbreak yourself, there are several tools that can help. …
Elaine Nsoesie, PhD, is a research fellow at Boston Children’s Hospital’s HealthMap, Harvard Medical School and Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. In this post, which originally appeared on HealthMap’s Disease Daily, Nsoesie looks at the trend of detecting disease digitally by monitoring mentions on social media. She delves into one of the major limitations of this technique—namely telling those who are curious about a disease apart from those who actually have it.
There are plenty of studies about tracking diseases (such as influenza) using digital data sources, which is awesome! However, many of these studies focus solely on matching the trends in the digital data sources (for example, searches on disease-related terms, or how frequently certain disease-related terms are mentioned on social media over time, etc.) to data from official sources such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although this approach is useful in telling us about the possible utility of these data, there are several limitations. One of the main limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between data generated by healthy individuals and individuals who are actually sick. In other words, how can we tell whether someone who searches Google or Wikipedia for influenza is sick or just curious about the flu?
You wake up feeling like someone has taken a jackhammer to your head. You’re feverish, aching all over and your stomach is doing somersaults. There’s no doubt about it: You have the flu.
You also have reservations for dinner tonight. So after a mug of tea and an ibuprofen, you grope for your phone and cancel the reservations you’d made through OpenTable.
That cancellation might be a signal to public health officials of a flu outbreak. Because, according to a study by HealthMap’sJohn Brownstein, PhD, and Elaine Nsoesie, PhD, reservation data from OpenTable could offer another view into the seasonal spread of the flu. …
Disease surveillance has long been the purview of state public health departments, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other agencies that collect reports from doctors, clinics and laboratories.
That disease control model is being turned on its head by projects like Boston Children’s Hospital’s HealthMap, which scours the web for information related to disease outbreaks. HealthMap’s Flu Near You goes a step further by encouraging people to report their own flu-related symptoms and help track flu emergence and spread.
To date, though, efforts like these have been limited to the digital sphere—part of the growing field of digital epidemiology. They don’t rely on blood, spit and mucus to get their data—it’s all in bits and based solely on symptoms.
But even that is changing, thanks to a new Flu Near You initiative called GoViral. GoViral brings everyone directly into the flu surveillance process by allowing them to not just report how they’re feeling, but to test themselves for flu at home and submit their results. …
“Since the  SARS outbreak, the world has seen substantial progress in transparency and rapid reporting. The extent of these advancements varies, but overall, digital disease surveillance is providing the global health community with tools supporting faster response and deeper understanding of emerging public health threats.”