Stories about: Epilepsy Center

Robot-enhanced neurosurgery for nimbler seizure mapping

implanting electrodes for seizure monitoring, with robotic assistance
Scellig Stone and Joseph Madsen in surgery with the robot.

Head shaved, a little boy rests on the operating table, deep under anesthesia. His parents have brought him to Boston Children’s Hospital in hopes of determining the cause of his seizures. Now, neurosurgeons Scellig Stone, MD, PhD, Joseph Madsen, MD, and their colleagues in the Epilepsy Center are performing a procedure designed to monitor seizure activity in the 3-year-old’s brain.

But as the team members crowd around the table, they’re not alone. With the push of a button, a large robotic arm rotates and lowers right next to the boy’s head, helping the physicians pinpoint the precise location to drill. “This is a real game-changer,” murmurs one of the clinicians observing the surgery. “It’s going to transform the way we practice.”

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News Notes: Pediatric science roundup

A quick look at recent research Vector finds noteworthy.

Tracking infants’ microbiomes

cute microbes-shutterstock_317080235-croppedMicrobiome studies are blooming as rapidly as bacteria in an immunocompromised host. But few studies have been done in children, whose microbiomes are actively forming and vulnerable to outside influences. Two studies in Science Translational Medicine on June 15 tracked infants’ gut microbiomes prospectively over time. The first, led by researchers at the Broad Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital, analyzed DNA from monthly stool samples from 39 Finnish infants, starting at 2 months of age. Over the next three years, 20 of the children received at least one course of antibiotics. Those who were repeatedly dosed had fewer “good” bacteria, including microbes important in training the immune system. Overall, their microbiomes were less diverse and less stable, and their gut microbes had more antibiotic resistance genes, some of which lingered even after antibiotic treatment. Delivery mode (cesarean vs. vaginal) also affected microbial diversity. A second study at NYU Langone Medical Center tracked 43 U.S. infants for two years and similarly found disturbances in microbiome development associated with antibiotic treatment, delivery by cesarean section and formula feeding versus breastfeeding.

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Seizure detection: It’s all in the wrist

seizure wristband
This wristband can sound an alarm when a child is having a seizure, and can help doctors better time medication dosing.

Seizures are often hard to track in children with epilepsy, making it difficult for doctors to optimize their treatment. For parents, the greatest worry is that their child will have a life-threatening seizure in the middle of the night or away from home, unable to get help. And what about when that child goes off to college?

“Every parent asks, ‘What can I do to prevent my child from harm?’” says Tobias Loddenkemper, MD, a neurologist in the Epilepsy Center at Boston Children’s Hospital.

Loddenkemper also wanted to better understand his patients’ seizure patterns so he could better time the dosing of their medications. He’s been testing a wristband sensor system, developed by Rosalind Picard, ScD, and colleagues at the MIT Media Lab (Epilepsia, March 20), and thinks it could be part of the solution.

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