Stories about: ETV-CPC

One-time hydrocephalus operation, alternative to shunting, brings good outcomes for babies

infant hydrocephalus archival photos
(Flickr/Wikimedia Commons)

Hydrocephalus, literally “water on the brain,” is an abnormal build-up of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain cavities known as ventricles. In infants, it can be congenital (it often accompanies spina bifida, for example), or it can be caused by brain hemorrhage or infection. The usual treatment is surgery to implant a shunt, which drains the excess fluid into the abdomen, relieving pressure on the brain.

But over time, shunts nearly always fail, requiring emergency neurosurgery to repair or replace them. But emergency neurosurgery is not something that’s readily available outside of metropolitan areas. Untreated, hydrocephalus causes progressive brain damage and usually death.

What if a one-time operation could treat hydrocephalus permanently? In today’s New England Journal of Medicine, a randomized trial shows good results with a minimally invasive, relatively inexpensive shunt alternative called endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC).

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Hacking a solution for hydrocephalus… just not the one expected

A project that set out to build better shunts ended with potential ways to help kids avoid them altogether.
A project that set out to build better shunts eventually pivoted.

Shunts often are surgically placed in the brains of infants with hydrocephalus to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid. Unfortunately, these devices eventually fail, and the problem is hard to detect until the child shows neurologic symptoms. CT and MRI scans may then be performed to check for a blockage of flow—followed by urgent neurosurgery if the shunt has failed.

Early detection of shunt failure was the problem pitched last fall at Hacking Pediatrics in Boston. Two bioengineers, Christopher Lee, a PhD student at Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology program, and Babak Movassaghi, PhD, an MBA candidate at MIT Sloan, took the bait.

“We heard that parents would not take vacations in areas without an experienced neurosurgeon around,” says Movassaghi, a former Philips Healthcare engineer with 32 patents in cardiology and electrophysiology. “We were intrigued to solve that.”

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