Stories about: Florian Winau

Poison ivy and psoriasis: The treatment we’ve been itching for?

poison ivy psoriasis target CD1a
Poison ivy, psoriasis, eczema and other inflammatory skin conditions could have a shared targeted treatment. (Jessica Kim/Winau Lab)

The skin is a natural barrier against pathogens and harmful chemicals. But it isn’t bulletproof: contact allergens like poison ivy can trigger an immune response causing severe inflammation, itching and tissue damage. Mechanistically, what happens is that Langerhans cells — certain antigen-presenting cells in the immune system — initiate a chain reaction. This rallies helper T cells to the area, causing skin inflammation.

A protein called CD1a (Cluster of Differentiation 1a) has been thought to be part of this reaction. But until recently, its role was poorly understood, at least in part because there was no good test model. Research in Nature Immunology now suggests that targeting CD1a could lead to new therapies for poison ivy and other inflammatory skin conditions like psoriasis and eczema.

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Protecting immune cells from exhaustion

T cell exhaustion
Boosting a naturally occurring protein could prevent T-cells from burning out

Run the first half of a marathon as fast as you can and you’ll likely never finish the race. Run an engine at top speed for too long and you’ll burn it out.

The same principle seems to apply to our T cells, which power the immune system’s battle with chronic infections like HIV and hepatitis B, as well as cancer. Too often, they succumb to “T cell exhaustion” and lose their capacity to attack infected or malignant cells. But could T cells learn to pace themselves and run the full marathon?

That’s the thinking behind a research study published last week by The Journal of Experimental Medicine. “Our research provides a clear explanation for why T cells lose their fighting ability,” says Florian Winau, MD, “and describes the countervailing process that protects their effectiveness.”

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