Stories about: HealthMap

Viral discussion: Epidemics experts sound off on the future of infection control

Image of flu virus, which experts think will eventually lead to future epidemics
Is the next flu pandemic around the corner?

During the 1918 influenza pandemic, the average life expectancy in the U.S. dropped below 40 years old. Today, public health and medical professionals need to be actively preparing for the next great pandemic, according to leaders of the Massachusetts Medical Society, The New England Journal of Medicine and Microsoft founder Bill Gates, who delivered the keynote address at a Boston-based meeting on April 27 called Epidemics Going Viral: Innovation vs. Nature. Here’s recap of what we heard from various panelists.

The five key drivers of epidemics are population growth/urbanization, travel, animals, environmental/climate changes and conflicts/natural disasters, according to Harvey Fineberg, MD, PhD, President of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and former president of the Institute of Medicine. When it comes to predicting and preventing the next epidemic, Fineberg believes that data from a social media platform like Twitter isn’t going to help identify the next big outbreak.

But John Brownstein, PhD, an epidemiologist and Chief Innovation Officer at Boston Children’s Hospital, disagreed with that idea.

“I believe it’s possible for Twitter to find the next microbe,” Brownstein said. “This information comes in real time and at global scale.” Attendees who were live tweeting with the hashtag #epidemicsgoviral were quick to highlight this difference of opinion.

Uber flu shot, “a cool millennial thing to do”

Anne Schuchat, MD, deputy director of the Centers of Disease Control, busted the myth that non-vaccination rates are rising. She explained that media stories about anti-vaccination supporters can make it seem as though vaccination rates are falling when they actually aren’t.

“Less than one percent of kids aren’t vaccinated in the U.S.,” Schuchat said.

But some vaccinations, like the annual flu shot, still have big gaps to close. Brownstein described how a partnership with Uber — dispatching flu vaccines and nurses to people’s homes — was able to influence people to get their first-ever flu shot.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

News Note: Norovirus outbreak threatens the Olympics

The HealthMap team at Boston Children's is currently tracking norovirus at the Olympics
The Computational Epidemiology Team at Boston Children’s Hospital tracks online, informal sources for disease outbreak monitoring and real-time surveillance of emerging public health threats through a platform called HealthMap. This is an image of what their surveillance dashboard is currently tracking (Feb. 15, 2018) in South Korea. Visit http://www.healthmap.org/en/ for more.

The 2018 Winter Olympics have brought nearly 3,000 delegates from 206 countries together in PyeongChang, South Korea. But just a week after kicking off on February 8, the games and its attendees are already being interrupted by a fast-spreading norovirus outbreak.

Norovirus is an extremely infectious disease transmitted through food, water or by touching a contaminated surface. Infection causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines, which can lead to symptoms including stomach pains, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

In PyeongChang, there have already been 199 confirmed cases of norovirus — many of those sickened have been security guards hired for the games. Due to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, 41 guards have been hospitalized and more than 1,200 were placed in quarantine. 

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

How social media and a mumps outbreak teach us that vaccines build herd immunity

Mumps virus, pictured here, is usually preventable by vaccination.
The mumps virus, pictured here, has been spreading through Arkansas communities. Surprisingly, many affected people say they have received vaccinations to prevent it. Analyzing social media data helped a Boston Children’s Hospital team understand why so many people got sick.

Residents of Arkansas have been under siege by a viral threat that is typically preventable through vaccination. Since August 2016, more than 2,000 people have been stricken with mumps, an infection of the major salivary glands that causes uncomfortable facial swelling.

The disease is highly contagious but can usually be prevented by making sure that children (or adults) have had two doses of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. But strangely, about 70 percent of people in Arkansas who got sick with mumps reported that they had received their two doses of the MMR vaccine.

So, members of the HealthMap lab, led by Chief Innovation Officer and director of the Computational Epidemiology Group at Boston Children’s Hospital, John Brownstein, PhD, asked, “Why did this outbreak take off?”

Read Full Story | 3 Comments | Leave a Comment

Tracking the public health effects of the Rio Olympics: HealthMap

Olympics Brazil Zika Health Map
Athletes around the world are converging on Brazil. What effects will this have on Zika and public health generally? (Nuno Lopes/Pixabay)

This past week, the 2016 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games began in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with more than 11,000 athletes and 500,000 international fans expected to arrive. As a major mass gathering, the Olympic Games are always vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This summer, all eyes in public health are on the concurrently occurring Zika virus and the under-reported H1N1 influenza outbreak in Brazil.

According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), visitors to the 2016 Games are most at risk for gastrointestinal illness from waterborne pathogens and mosquito-borne infections, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. So far in 2016, we have seen an estimated 165,000 cases of Zika virus, 1,345,286 cases of dengue, 137,808 cases of chikungunya and more than 6,500 cases of H1N1 influenza, with an additional 1,233 deaths from H1N1 — all in Brazil alone.

Read Full Story | 1 Comment | Leave a Comment

Plugging gaps in Zika surveillance with online news reports

Zika surveillance
Zika virus disease reports as of May 31, 2016 (click to enlarge)

As the Zika epidemic continues to unfold, most affected countries are flying blind: they have limited government disease surveillance systems in place to track new cases. That leaves public health officials unable to estimate how fast Zika is spreading, where the hotspots are and when the outbreak will peak — much less contain it and prepare for cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, both now presumed to be caused by the Zika virus.

“One of the things we really struggled with in the early days of Zika was a lack of official data sources,” says research fellow Maia Majumder, MPH, of the Computational Epidemiology Group at Boston Children’s Hospital. “Surveillance has been really lagging. When we don’t know how many cases there are day to day, week to week, it’s really hard to characterize how bad an outbreak is.”

A study this week led by Majumder suggests a readily available data source for estimating actual case counts on the ground: online local news reports, adjusted using data from Google search trends.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

Tracking Zika? Use HealthMap

Like a virus, the story of Zika virus in the Americas is evolving very, very rapidly. Just in the last week we’ve seen:

To help public health investigators, policy makers, epidemiologists and others keep up with the virus, the team at HealthMap has released a dedicated Zika virus tracking resource at http://www.healthmap.org/zika/. The new map brings in Zika-related information and news from a variety of sources in near real-time, and includes a constantly updated interactive timeline of the virus’s explosive spread across South and Central America.

The HealthMap team is also providing regularly updated coverage of the Zika virus outbreak on their Disease Daily blog.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

Mapping antibiotic resistance near you: ResistanceOpen

antibiotic resistance mapping ResistanceOpen

At the moment, it would appear the bacteria are winning. Antibiotic resistance is on the rise globally (in part because much of the public may not really understand how antibiotics work), threatening doctors’ ability to treat bacterial infections and potentially making surgery, chemotherapy and other medical procedures whose safety depends on antibiotic prophylaxis more risky.

Mapping antibiotic resistance — which bacteria are resistant to which drugs, and where — can help clinicians and public health officials decide how best to focus their control efforts. The challenge to date has been compiling resistance data in geographically useful ways.

“The data about antibiotic resistance are fragmented across laboratories and hospitals globally,” says Derek MacFadden, MD, a doctoral student at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health who is working with the HealthMap team in Boston Children’s Computational Health Informatics Program. “Most of the data that are available are very high level, so you can’t get an understanding of regional-level antibiotic resistance.”

This is where ResistanceOpen could come in handy. This new tool, launched by HealthMap team this week during the World Health Organization’s World Antibiotic Awareness Week, provides a window into regional and local antibiotic resistance patterns across the globe.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

The MERS death rate in Saudi Arabia is double that in South Korea. Why?

map South Korea Saudi Arabia MERS
(Wikimedia Commons)

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) virus outbreak in South Korea is essentially over. (Not so in Saudi Arabia, where the virus first emerged, though—authorities there have reported a major uptick in new MERS cases in recent days.) And while the country gets back on its feet, some interesting data are starting to come out, especially about the outbreak’s case fatality rate (CFR; the percent of patients infected with the virus who died from it).

John Brownstein, PhD, and Maimuna Majumder, MPH, from Boston Children’s HealthMap team just reported in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases that MERS’ CFR in South Korea (22 percent) is fully half that seen in Saudi Arabia (44 percent).

This infographic about Brownstein and Majumder’s MERS paper gives a snapshot of the data the analyzed, and what they think those data mean:

MERS virus South Korea Saudi Arabia infographic

Read Brownstein and Majumder’s analysis and check out Boston Children’s Hospital’s news release about the MERS paper.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

Is that fever a problem? Ask Thermia

Thermia fever calculator HealthMap

Your child’s forehead is warm, and you just took her temperature. The next question is, what to do about it? We all know that an average normal temp is 98.6°F, but is 100° a problem? Should 102° be a concern?

This is where Thermia comes in. It’s an online fever calculator developed by the HealthMap team at Boston Children’s Hospital. Essentially, it’s an educational tool aimed at helping concerned parents interpret a child’s temperature and understand which steps they should consider taking.

“I’m a father of two, and I still wonder sometimes what a temperature actually means,” says HealthMap co-founder John Brownstein, PhD. “We realized that there really aren’t any fever calculators out there to help parents answer that question.

“Our idea with Thermia,” he adds, “was to arm families with information so they don’t panic when their child has a temperature.”

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

Yes, poor vaccination rates are fueling the 2015 measles outbreak

CDC measles outbreak map vaccination Disneyland
(CDC)

There’s been a lot of speculation about whether low vaccination rates are feeding the 2015 U.S. measles outbreak, which as I write this stands at 145 cases across seven states. Well, we can stop speculating, because the numbers are in, and measles is taking advantage of pockets of inadequately vaccinated people.

That’s the stark, unequivocal message from a study by epidemiologists at Boston Children’s Hospital, published this week in the journal JAMA Pediatrics.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment