Stories about: Hematology/Oncology

More surprises about blood development — and a possible lead for making lymphocytes

blood development chart
Blood development in the embryo begins with cells that make myeloid and erythroid cells – but not lymphoid cells. Why? A partial answer is in today’s Nature.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have long been regarded as the granddaddy of all blood cells. After we’re born, these multipotent cells give rise to all our cell lineages: lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid cells. Hematologists have long focused on capturing HSCs’ emergence in the embryo, hoping to recreate the process in the lab to provide a source of therapeutic blood cells.

But in the embryo, oddly enough, blood development unfolds differently. The first blood cells to show up are already partly differentiated. These so-called “committed progenitors” give rise only to erythroid and myeloid cells — not lymphoid cells like the immune system’s B and T lymphocytes.

Researchers in the lab of George Q. Daley, MD, PhD, part of Boston Children’s Hospital’s Stem Cell Research program, wanted to know why. Does nature deliberately suppress blood cell multipotency in early embryonic development? And could this offer clues about how to reinstate multipotency and more readily generate different blood cell types?

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GALLERY: Forecasting the future of pediatric hematology/oncology

Title image for pediatric hematology/oncology predictionsRecently, the annual ASPHO (American Society for Pediatric Hematology/Oncology) meeting brought together more than 1,100 pediatric hematologists and oncologists, including a team from the Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancers and Blood Disorders Center. Some of the delegates from Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s included:

Based on their discussions with their peers, these are their key takeaways from the meeting:

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Naturally-occurring molecule in tree leaves could treat anemia, other iron disorders

Hinoki cypress

“Without iron, life itself wouldn’t be feasible,” says Barry Paw, MD, PhD. “Iron transport is very important because of the role it plays in oxygen transport in blood, in key metabolic processes and in DNA replication.”

Although iron is crucial to many aspects of health, it needs the help of the body’s iron-transporting proteins. Which is why new findings reported in Science could impact a whole slew of iron disorders, ranging from iron-deficiency anemia to iron-overload liver disease. The team has discovered that a small molecule found naturally in Japanese cypress tree leaves, hinokitiol, can transport iron to overcome iron disorders in animals.

The multi-institutional research team is from the University of Illinois, Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Northeastern University. Paw, co-senior author on the new paper and a physician at Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s, and members of his lab demonstrated that hinokitiol can successfully reverse iron deficiency and iron overload in zebrafish disease models.

“Amazingly, we observed in zebrafish that hinokitiol can bind and transport iron inside or out of cell membranes to where it is needed most,” says Paw.

This gives hinokitiol big therapeutic potential.

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Science then & now: Progress that you can see

Click and drag to compare and contrast archive photos from the lab with current-day images of research at Boston Children’s Hospital.

Then, 1986: Stuart H. Orkin, MD, examines the DNA sequence of a gene.

Now, 2017: Today, Orkin is associate chief of Hematology/Oncology and chairman of Pediatric Oncology at Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center (DF/BC). In this photo, he examines a rendering of a gene regulatory molecule’s structure. Orkin’s lab investigates gene regulation of stem cell development, genetic vulnerabilities to cancer and gene and other therapies for treating hemoglobin disorders. 

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New cancer target, let-7, unifies theories on neuroblastoma’s origins


Striking the nerve tissue, neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infants and toddlers. Great strides have been made in its treatment, but advanced cases still are often fatal, and children who survive often face life-long physical and intellectual challenges related to their treatment.

A study published online by Nature last week, led by researchers at Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, finds that a microRNA called let-7 is central in curbing neuroblastoma. The study unifies several theories about neuroblastoma and could bring focus to efforts to find a targeted, nontoxic alternative to chemotherapy.

The findings also have implications for other solid tumors in which let-7 is lost, such as Wilms tumor, lung, breast, ovarian and cervical cancers, says first author John Powers, PhD, of the Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology at Boston Children’s Hospital.

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