Stories about: HIV vaccine

Getting closer to cracking HIV’s envelope protein

missing segment of HIV envelope could be target for HIV vaccine
(IMAGE: ADOBE STOCK)

For 30 years, researchers have tried to develop an HIV vaccine that would stop the virus from gaining a foothold in the body — before it attaches to T cells and slowly weakens the immune system.

“It has been extremely challenging to induce effective antibody responses against HIV-1,” says Bing Chen, PhD, who researches HIV’s molecular mechanisms at Boston Children’s Hospital.

HIV offers just one target for a vaccine to mimic to trigger protective antibodies: the envelope protein on its surface. Scientists have been struggling to capture the complex protein’s precise structure — and specifically, its structure before the virus fuses with the T-cell membrane.

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Why evolution is the challenge — and the promise — in developing a vaccine against HIV

HIV surrounds and attacks a cell.
HIV surrounds and attacks a cell.

To fight HIV, the development of immunization strategies must keep up with how quickly the virus modifies itself. Now, Boston Children’s Hospital researchers are developing models to test HIV vaccines on a faster and broader scale than ever before with the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

“The field of HIV research has needed a better way to model the immune responses that happen in humans,” says Frederick Alt, PhD, director of the Boston Children’s Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, who is leading the HIV vaccine research supported by the Gates Foundation.

The researchers are racing against HIV’s sophisticated attack on the human immune system. HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, mutates much faster than other pathogens. Within each infected patient, one virus can multiply by the billions.

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