Stories about: immune system

Link found between chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders and “false alarms”

Viruses (pictured here) have a genetic signature that a receptor called MDA5 recognizes. But when MDA5 confuses the body's own genetic material with that of a virus, disease ensues.
Viruses have a genetic signature that a human receptor called MDA5 recognizes, causing the immune system to attack. But when MDA5 confuses the body’s own genetic material for that of a virus, disease ensues.

The human body’s innate immune system employs a variety of “sensors” for identifying foreign invaders such as viruses. One such viral sensor is a receptor called MDA5, found in every cell of the body.

Inside each cell, MDA5 constantly scans genetic material, checking if it’s native to the body or not. As soon as MDA5 identifies the genetic signature of a viral invader, it trips a system-wide alarm, triggering a cascade of immune activity to neutralize the threat.

But if a genetic mutation to MDA5 causes it to confuse some of the body’s own genetic material for being foreign, “false alarms” can lead to unchecked inflammation and disease. Scientists from Boston Children’s Hospital have discovered a new link between MDA5’s ability to discriminate between “self” and “non-self” genetic material — called RNA duplexes — and a spectrum of autoimmune disorders.

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Microbial murder mystery solved

Bacteria, pictured in Petri dish culture here, can become resistant to antibiotics - but not killer cells. Why? New research from Boston Children's Hospital helps solve this microbial murder mystery.Immune cells called “killer cells” target bacteria invading the body’s cells, but how do they do this so effectively? Bacteria can quickly evolve resistance against antibiotics, yet it seems they have not so readily been able to evade killer cells. This has caused researchers to become interested in finding out the exact mechanism that killer cells use to destroy bacterial invaders.

Although one way that killer cells can trigger bacterial death is by inflicting oxidative damage, it has not yet been at all understood how killer cells destroy bacteria in environments without oxygen.

Now, for the first time, researchers have caught killer cells red-handed in the act of microbial murder

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