Stories about: infection prevention

How social media and a mumps outbreak teach us that vaccines build herd immunity

Mumps virus, pictured here, is usually preventable by vaccination.
The mumps virus, pictured here, has been spreading through Arkansas communities. Surprisingly, many affected people say they have received vaccinations to prevent it. Analyzing social media data helped a Boston Children’s Hospital team understand why so many people got sick.

Residents of Arkansas have been under siege by a viral threat that is typically preventable through vaccination. Since August 2016, more than 2,000 people have been stricken with mumps, an infection of the major salivary glands that causes uncomfortable facial swelling.

The disease is highly contagious but can usually be prevented by making sure that children (or adults) have had two doses of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. But strangely, about 70 percent of people in Arkansas who got sick with mumps reported that they had received their two doses of the MMR vaccine.

So, members of the HealthMap lab, led by Chief Innovation Officer and director of the Computational Epidemiology Group at Boston Children’s Hospital, John Brownstein, PhD, asked, “Why did this outbreak take off?”

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CDC warns of ‘empty medicine cabinets’ as antibiotic resistance spreads

extended-spectrum B-lactamase

The discovery of penicillin in 1928 marked the beginning of the antibiotic era and dramatic improvements in health and medicine. With mass production of the new ‘wonder drug’ in the 1940s, threats from previously lethal diseases like bacterial infections and pneumonia waned. However, less than 100 years later, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is sounding alarms about the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance.

The United States is edging closer to the cliff of a post-antibiotic era in which medications lose their effectiveness, the CDC cautioned in a September report, detailing the burden and threat posed by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Every year, more than 2 million people in the U.S. contract antibiotic-resistant infections, and at least 23,000 people die as a result. Estimates vary, but data suggest that the direct health care costs of antibiotic resistance may top $20 billion annually.

The path from remedy to resistance is rapid. “Every time antibiotics are used in any setting, bacteria evolve by developing resistance. This process can happen with alarming speed,” says Steve Solomon, MD, director of CDC’s Office of Antimicrobial Resistance.

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