Stories about: light

DNA paired with light could help guide drugs to their targets

UV light-activated aptamers Dan Kohane drug delivery
Short snippets of DNA called aptamers (red) readily get into cancer cells (green and blue) on their own (left panel). They can't penetrate cells when stuck to an oligonucleotide (center), but regain the ability when the oligonucleotide's bonds are broken by UV light (right). (Images courtesy Lele Li, PhD.)

You have a drug. You know what you want it to do and where in the body you need it to go. But when you inject it into a patient, how can you make sure your drug does what you want, where you want, when you want it to?

Daniel Kohane, MD, PhD, who runs the Laboratory of Biomaterials and Drug Delivery at Boston Children’s Hospital, has one potential solution. In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Kohane; postdoctoral fellows LeLe Li, PhD, and Rong Tong, PhD; and Robert Langer, PhD, of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, describe a drug- targeting system that’s based on a combination of ultraviolet (UV) light and short, single strands of DNA called aptamers.

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The light side of drug delivery

Daniel Kohane of Boston Children's Hospital is developing drug delivery technologies that rely on nanoparticles and the spectrum of light.Getting drugs where they need to be, and at the right time, can be more challenging than you think. Tumors, for example, tend to have blood vessels that are tighter and twistier than normal ones, making it hard for drugs to penetrate them. Despite decades of research on antibodies, peptides and other guidance methods, drug makers struggle to target drugs to specific tissues or cell types.

And even once a drug arrives at the right place, the ability to fine-tune the dose so that the drug is released at the right time and in the right amount remains an elusive goal.

What’s needed is some kind of trigger, a stimulus that a clinician can turn on and off to guide when a drug is available and where it goes to make sure it does its job with the fewest side effects.

Daniel Kohane, MD, PhD, a critical care specialist and director of the Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery at Boston Children’s Hospital, thinks he’s hit upon a promising trigger, one that’s all around us: light.

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