Stories about: lung

Proposed cancer treatment may boost lung cancer stem cells, study warns

Epigenetic enzymes and lung cancer: Treating adenocarcinoma with G9a histone methyltransferase inhibitors leads to an increase in tumor cells with stem-like properties. In contrast, inhibiting histone demethylase prevents tumor growth. (SAMUEL ROWBOTHAM/BOSTON CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL)

Epigenetic therapies — targeting enzymes that alter what genes are turned on or off in a cell — are of growing interest in oncology as a way to make cancers less aggressive or less malignant. But now, at least one epigenetic therapy that had looked promising for lung cancer appears to boost the cancer stem cells that are believed to drive tumors. A study published today in Nature Communications also identifies a strategy that reduces these stem cells, curbing lung cancer in mice.

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Lung transplant evaluation: How the rules may differ in children

LungsMost adult transplant centers require patients to walk a set distance in under six minutes to remain a good candidate for lung transplant. The thought is that if patients cannot meet this minimal threshold, then their chances of being able to rehabilitate after transplant are diminished. In pediatrics, this is also important. But Dawn Freiberger, RN, MSN, Boston Children’s Hospital’s Lung Transplant coordinator, says there are other factors that have to be considered.

“The walk test is just one piece of the pie,” says Freiberger.

In 2013, Freiberger co-authored a study, Pretransplant six-minute walk test predicts peri- and post-operative outcomes after pediatric lung transplantation, which became the precursor to a multicenter study with the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and St. Louis Children’s Hospital. The new study looks at how a child’s pre-transplant physical condition affects post-transplant outcomes.

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A link between cystic fibrosis and arsenic poisoning?

boys playing in arsenic-endemic area of Bangladesh

Since its causative gene was sequenced in the 1980s, cystic fibrosis (CF) has been the “textbook” genetic disease. Several thousand mutations have been identified in the CFTR protein, which regulates the flow of chloride in and out of cells. When CFTR is lost or abnormal, thick mucus builds up, impairing patients’ lungs, liver, pancreas, and digestive and reproductive systems, and making their lungs prone to opportunistic infections.

But new research could add a chapter to the textbook, pinpointing an unexpected environmental cause of CF-like illness. A study reported in the February 5 New England Journal of Medicine found that people with arsenic poisoning have high chloride levels in their sweat—the classic diagnostic sign of CF.

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TEDMED Day 1: Breathing lungs and the value of the printed page

Yes, it’s true. If you were following on Twitter, you would have seen the tweets about Martha Stewart at the TEDMED conference touching a pair of breathing pig lungs on stage. The setup was a miraculous opening aria by opera singer Charity Tilleman-Dick, who then revealed the real miracle: a year ago she had a double-lung transplant. Shaf Keshavjee followed, wheeling out his ex vivo lung machine, which can maintain a healthy lung out of the body for 24 hours, enabling doctors to treat the lung with medications and even gene therapy before transplanting it to enhance the chances of success. Keshavjee invited audience members to come and touch the lungs, which is how Martha ended up there, iPhone in hand, preparing to tweet about her experience.

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Could amniotic infusions improve lung development?

An obstructed urinary tract, viewed on fetal ultrasound

Babies whose urinary tracts are obstructed before birth are at risk for a life-threatening complication: being born with poorly developed lungs. But surgeon Grace Nicksa, MD believes lung development could be preserved if the mother’s womb were infused with enough fluid at the right time in her pregnancy.

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Drug-testing alternative: a lung on a chip


Combining microfabrication techniques from the computer industry with modern tissue engineering, a team at Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering has created a device that mimics the function of a human lung. This living “lung-on-a-chip,” which incorporates human lung and blood-vessel cells, reproduces the all-important interface between the lung’s tiny air sacs and the bloodstream. Breathing is simulated with a vacuum pump.

The wafer-sized device mimics the human lung’s response to infectious agents, airborne particles and toxins in a way that’s truer to real life than standard cell testing in a lab dish.

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