Many people who have Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for obesity experience a striking but welcome side effect. In up to 80 percent of patients who also have type 2 diabetes, the diabetes abates even before they lose weight. A new study helps explain why, and suggests possible ways to combat diabetes (and obesity) without having to actually perform bariatric surgery.
“Our aim is to ‘reverse engineer’ the surgery, to find how it works and apply the mechanisms to new, less invasive treatments,” said study lead author Margaret Stefater, MD, PhD, a fellow in the lab of Nicholas Stylopoulos, MD, in a press release.
Research shows that gastric bypass surgery, aside from inducing weight loss, resolves type 2 diabetes. Though weight loss and improved diabetes often go hand-in-hand, patients who undergo gastric bypass usually end up seeing an improvement in their type 2 diabetes even before they lose weight.
But why? To investigate, a research team led by Nicholas Stylopoulos, MD, of Boston Children’s Hospital’s Division of Endocrinology, spent a year studying rats and observed that after gastric bypass surgery, the way in which the small intestine processes glucose changes. They saw the intestine using and disposing of glucose, and showed that it thereby regulates blood glucose levels in the rest of the body, helping to resolve type 2 diabetes.
Basically, as the team reported recently in Science, the small intestine—widely believed to be a passive organ—is actually a major contributor to the body’s metabolism. …