Stories about: Ofer Levy

Effective vaccination of newborns: Getting closer to the dream

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In many parts of the world, babies have just one chance to be vaccinated: when they’re born. Unfortunately, newborns’ young immune systems don’t respond well to most vaccines. That’s why, in the U.S., most immunizations start at two months of age.

Currently, only BCG, polio vaccine and hepatitis B vaccines work in newborns, and the last two require multiple doses. But new research raises the possibility of one-shot vaccinations at birth — with huge implications for reducing infant mortality.

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A vaccine of one’s own: Precision medicine comes to immunization

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When it comes to vaccines, one size doesn’t fit all, researchers are finding.

Once upon a time, an English country doctor forged a treatment out of cow pus. Edward Jenner squeezed fluid from a cowpox sore on a milkmaid’s hand, and with it, successfully inoculated an eight-year-old boy, protecting him from the related smallpox virus.

It was the world’s first successful vaccination and laid the foundation for modern vaccinology: researchers formulate vaccines from a dead or disabled microbe — or its virulent components — and people sigh with relief when they don’t succumb to the disease.

But investigators are now finding holes in traditional vaccine dogma. “Vaccines were developed under the assumption that one size fits all,” says Ofer Levy, MD, PhD, a physician-scientist in the Division of Infectious Diseases at Boston Children’s Hospital and director of the collaborative Precision Vaccines Program. “That you develop a vaccine and it will protect the same way whether the patient is young, middle aged or elderly; male or female; living in a city or rural environment; northern or southern hemisphere; whether given day or night; summer or winter.”

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Protecting the brain in newborn bloodstream infections

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Preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units, particularly those with catheters and intravenous lines, are at high risk for bacteremia—bloodstream infections that can cause lasting brain injury. A new study may change how people think about these infections, suggesting that inflammation is as important to address as the infection itself.

Using a novel mouse model of bloodstream infections in newborns, infectious disease physician-researcher Ofer Levy, MD, PhD, demonstrates that bacteremia can damage the brain even when the bacteria don’t actually get into the central nervous system. Findings were published online last week in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

“There has been a lot of indirect epidemiologic evidence for a link between bacteremia, inflammation and cerebral injury, but it showed only a correlation, not causation,” says Levy. “Here we demonstrate directly in an animal model that inflammation alone can cause brain injury in newborns with bacteremia, even without entry of the bacteria to the central nervous system.”

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