Stories about: placenta

Why is one twin sometimes smaller than the other? The answer may lie in the placenta

placental oxygen transport may help determine fetal size

When a baby is born small, it’s often chalked up to genetics or to maternal risk factors like poor nutrition or smoking. A study of twin pregnancies, published today in Scientific Reports, finds another factor that can be measured prentally: slower transport of oxygen from mother to baby across the placenta.

The study, part of the NIH-funded Human Placenta Project, is the first to make a direct connection between placental oxygen transport and birth outcomes. It relies on a new, noninvasive technique called Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) MRI. Developed by P. Ellen Grant, MD, director of the Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center at Boston Children’s Hospital and Elfar Adalsteinsson, PhD at MIT, it maps oxygen delivery across the placenta in real time.

“Until now, we had no way to look at regional placental function in vivo,” says Grant.

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Placental MRI to monitor fetal health?

Placental MRI

Prenatal ultrasounds monitor fetal health in part by gauging blood flow from mother to fetus through the placenta. But researchers at MIT, Boston Children’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital are diving deeper with magnetic resonance imaging. They’re taking advantage of MRI’s ability to measure oxygen concentrations in the placenta and fetal organs.

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Maternal-infant health research will bring placenta into view

placental health
A pre-1858 schematic of the placental circulation from Gray’s Anatomy (Wikimedia Commons).

The afterbirth has generally been an afterthought, but that’s about to change.

This week, 19 research centers were awarded grants from NIH’s Human Placenta Project, which is seeking to learn more about the intricate organ that sustained us in the womb, the interface between us and our mothers.

A robust placenta is key to a healthy pregnancy and baby, but strangely, not much is actually known about it. “It’s a fascinating but very poorly understood structure,” says P. Ellen Grant, MD, who directs the Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center at Boston Children’s Hospital and is leading one of the projects.

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