Three years ago, Stella Kourembanas, MD, and S. Alex Mitsialis, PhD, thought they had a major breakthrough in treating pulmonary hypertension (PH) — dangerously high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery (the vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs) — and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) — a chronic lung disease that can affect babies born prematurely or who were put on a ventilator.
The two diseases are complex and serious, often occur together and are currently incurable.
The solution for PH and BPD, the two researchers from Boston Children’s Division of Newborn Medicine thought, was to protect the babies’ fragile lungs with a kind of stem cell called mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs), which can develop into lung tissue.
Their preclinical studies were pretty conclusive. If they transplanted MSCs in mouse models of BPD and PH, the mice didn’t develop the lung inflammation that triggers the disease.
But the results were a little confusing. …