Stories about: retinoblastoma

News Note: Why is this eye cancer making headlines?

This illustrations shows a catheter is used during intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma.
During intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma, a catheter is placed into the common femoral artery and threaded through a child’s vasculature to access the blood vessel of the affected eye and deliver a concentrated dose of chemotherapy. Illustration: Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s.

Retinoblastoma is a rare cancer that originates in the retina, the tissue in the back of the eye that converts light into visual information that is interpreted by the brain.

One retinoblastoma symptom in particular is finding itself in the spotlight. With a rise in social media use in recent years, retinoblastoma has attracted media attention for being a type of cancer that can sometimes be detected through photographs. Across the internet, news stories like this one abound in which friends or relatives have alerted parents to the potential risk of eye cancer after noticing that a child’s pupil appears white instead of red — a symptom called leukocoria — on photos posted to social media.

Fortunately, with proper diagnosis and treatment, 95 percent of children diagnosed with retinoblastoma can be cured. What’s more, a catheter-based treatment approach is now sparing patients from some of the side effects that can be expected from more traditional therapies.

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Why we need more research into childhood cancer

WilliamsDavidDSC_0056PreviewlargeDavid A. Williams, MD, is chief of hematology/oncology at Boston Children’s Hospital and associate chairman of pediatric oncology at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. This column was first published on Huffington Post.

The fact that childhood cancer is, thankfully, rare belies the fact that it is the leading cause of disease-related death in U.S. children age 1 to 19. The number of people with a direct stake in expanding research into pediatric cancer is quite large, well beyond the small number of children with cancer and their families. Not only are the life-long contributions of children cured of cancer enormous, but understanding cancers of young children could also hold the key to understanding a broad range of adult cancers. The time is ripe to allocate more resources, public and private, to research on pediatric cancer.

In an age of increased understanding of the genetic basis of diseases, one thing is striking about many childhood cancers. They are relatively “quiet” cancers, with very few mutations of the DNA. Young children haven’t lived long enough to acquire the large number of mutations that create the background “noise” associated with years of living. This makes it much easier to pinpoint the relevant genetic abnormalities in a young child’s cancer.

Add to this the growing realization that biology, including how various tumors use common “pathways,” is a major factor in how the cancer responds to treatment. Thus, a mechanism that’s relatively easier to observe in the cancers of young children could help scientists understand cancers in adults, in whom the same mechanism is hidden amid the clutter of mutations acquired over a longer life.

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