Almost 10 percent of pediatric deaths occur suddenly and without explanation. In this terrible situation, the first question many parents have is “Why?” For most, answers never come.
Childhood deaths that cannot be explained by traditional autopsy and death-scene investigation are referred to as sudden unexplained deaths in pediatrics (SUDP). In children, these deaths are more common than those from either cardiac disease or cancer and typically occur in infancy or early childhood.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) accounts for the greatest share of deaths in children between the ages of 1 and 12 months. What if a blood test could explain a third of SIDS deaths – and in the future, help prevent them? New findings by a Boston Children’s Hospital team show that an increased level of serotonin in blood serum may underpin some SIDS deaths and suggests the possibility that this biological vulnerability may one day be detected in the blood of living infants.
While there are known risk factors for SIDS — such as sleeping face-down or on soft surfaces — how and why such seemingly minor threats kill some children, and not others, remains a mystery.
“Research on the underlying pathology of SIDS is critical to further our understanding of the biological mechanisms contributing to a SIDS death,” says Robin Haynes, PhD, a researcher in the Department of Pathology at Boston Children’s Hospital. …
Epidemiologic studies have shown that infants who die suddenly, unexpectedly and without explanation—what’s referred to as sudden infant death syndrome, or SIDS—are often found sleeping face down with their face in the pillow, or sleeping next to an adult. These are environments that have the potential to cause smothering and asphyxiation. By advising parents to have infants sleep on their backs, in a separate crib or bed, the government’s Safe to Sleep campaign (formerly known as Back to Sleep) has greatly reduced deaths from SIDS.
Hannah Kinney, MD, a neuropathologist at Boston Children’s Hospital, is clear that this campaign must go forward—it’s saved thousands of lives. But still, she receives calls from parents and grandparents haunted by their infants’ death, feeling at fault and wanting a second opinion.
And in many cases, she has been able to document abnormalities in brainstem circuits that help control breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature control during sleep.
What’s lacking is early detection and treatment. …