We are normally born with a highly sophisticated array of molecules that act as “sentries,” constantly scanning our bodies for injuries such as cuts and bruises. One such molecular sentry, known as von Willebrand factor (VWF), plays a critical role in our body’s ability to stop bleeding.
To prevent hemorrhage or life-threatening blood clots, VWF must strike a delicate balance between clotting too little or too much. Researchers have long suspected that the mechanical forces and shear stress of blood flow could be closely-related to VWF’s function.
“In some ways, like in the movie Star Wars, VWF may be considered a Jedi knight in our body that can use ‘the force’ to guard the bloodstream,” says Timothy Springer, PhD, of Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School (HMS).
It has not been possible to witness exactly how VWF senses and harnesses these mechanical forces — until now. …
It began with the proteins. Before Watson and Crick unraveled DNA’s double helix in the 1950s, biochemists snipped, ground and pulverized animal tissues to extract and study proteins, the workhorses of the body.
Then, in 1990, the Human Genome Project launched. It promised to uncover the underpinnings of all human biology and the keys to treating disease. Funding for DNA and RNA tools and studies skyrocketed. Meanwhile, protein science fell behind.
While genomics unveiled a wealth of information, including the identity of genes that lead to disease when mutated, researchers still do not fully understand what all the genes really do and how mutations change their function and cause disease.
Now proteins are promising to provide the missing link. …
At the dawn of his career, immunologist, biological chemist, molecular pharmacologist and seven-time biomedical entrepreneur Timothy Springer thought science was a bad idea. “I was suspect of the purposes that science had been put to,” he says, “making Agent Orange and napalm.”
It was 1966, and Springer was a Yale undergrad thinking, “What the hell good is this Ivy League education? The best and brightest, the Ivy League-educated people, totally screwed up in getting us into the Vietnam War.”
So he dropped out. For a year, he lived on a Native American reservation in Nevada for Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA). He helped the Tribal Council draft resolutions, launched a 4-H club and lobbied for paved roads so kids could go to school.
Finally, he returned to school at the University of California, Berkeley — trying anthropology, sociology and psychology. Switching to biochemistry his junior year, Springer asked his advisor, scientific visionary Daniel Koshland, Jr., former editor of Science, “Do you think I can do this — graduate with a degree in biochemistry?” …