Stories about: Tom Schwarz

Maintaining mitochondria in neurons: A new lens for neurodegenerative disorders

cartoon of mitochondria being transported in neurons - part of mitostasis
In some neurons, mitochondria must travel several feet along an axon. (Elena Hartley illustration)

Tom Schwarz, PhD, is a neuroscientist at Boston Children’s Hospital’s F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, focusing on the cell biology of neurons. Tess Joosse is a biology major at Oberlin College. This article is condensed from a recent review article by Schwarz and Thomas Misgeld (Technical University of Munich).

Like all cells, the neurons of our nervous system depend on mitochondria to generate energy. Mitochondria need constant rejuvenation and turnover, and that’s especially true in neurons because of their high energy needs for signaling and “firing.” Mitochondria are especially abundant at presynaptic sites — the tips of axons that form synapses or junctions with other neurons and release neurotransmitters.

But the process of maintaining mitochondrial number and quality, known as mitostasis, also poses particular challenges in neurons. Increasingly, mitostasis is providing a helpful lens for understanding neurodegenerative disorders. Problems with mitostasis are implicated in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, ALS, autism, stroke, multiple sclerosis, hypoxia and more.

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