When the nerves between the brain and the spinal cord aren’t working properly, bladder control can suffer, resulting in a condition called neurogenic bladder. It’s a common complication of spinal cord injury; in fact, most people with spina bifida or spinal cord injury develop neurogenic bladders. Spontaneous activity of the smooth muscle in the wall of the bladder — called the detrusor muscle — commonly causes urine leakage and incontinence in people with neurogenic bladders.
“For children and adults, incontinence can be one of the most socially and psychologically detrimental complications of spinal cord injury,” says Rosalyn Adam, PhD, who is director of urology research at Boston Children’s Hospital. “The ultimate goal of our research is to return bladder control to the millions of Americans with neurogenic bladders.”
Now, Adam and a team of researchers think that they may have found a practical way to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity by delivering medication directly into the bladder through self-catheterization, a practice that many people with neurogenic bladders already need to perform regularly. …
A quick look at recent research Vector finds noteworthy.
Tracking infants’ microbiomes
Microbiome studies are blooming as rapidly as bacteria in an immunocompromised host. But few studies have been done in children, whose microbiomes are actively forming and vulnerable to outside influences. Two studies in Science Translational Medicine on June 15 tracked infants’ gut microbiomes prospectively over time. The first, led by researchers at the Broad Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital, analyzed DNA from monthly stool samples from 39 Finnish infants, starting at 2 months of age. Over the next three years, 20 of the children received at least one course of antibiotics. Those who were repeatedly dosed had fewer “good” bacteria, including microbes important in training the immune system. Overall, their microbiomes were less diverse and less stable, and their gut microbes had more antibiotic resistance genes, some of which lingered even after antibiotic treatment. Delivery mode (cesarean vs. vaginal) also affected microbial diversity. A second study at NYU Langone Medical Center tracked 43 U.S. infants for two years and similarly found disturbances in microbiome development associated with antibiotic treatment, delivery by cesarean section and formula feeding versus breastfeeding. …
Silk production and global interest in the lustrous fiber date back to prehistoric times. Today, the natural protein is solidifying itself as a biomaterials alternative in the world of regenerative medicine.
Scaffolds made of silk could give doctors a simple, more effective material for performing bladder augmentation in people with urinary tract defects—to relieve incontinence and prevent kidney damage in children born with small bladders, for example. Rather than using cells to augment the bladder, a complicated process, silk could provide an “off the shelf” option, says Carlos Estrada, MD, a urologist at Boston Children’s Hospital.
Recent research by Estrada and Joshua Mauney, PhD, shows that scaffolds made of fibroin (the protein that makes up raw silk) have worked well in augmenting bladders in animal models—without the need for cells.
Estrada and Mauney built on the work of Anthony Atala, MD, who became head of the Institute for Regenerative Medicine at Wake Forest after undertaking pioneer work in tissue engineering in Boston Children’s Urology Department. …
Two national trends have preoccupied Caleb Nelson, MD, MPH, and his colleagues in the Boston Children’s Hospital’s Urology Department over the past few years. One is the rise in overall exposure to medical radiation. The second is specifically the increased use of computed tomography (CT) scans—rather than clinician-preferred ultrasound—in children with kidney stones.
“We see a lot of kids with stones, and there is a clinical need to better manage their condition,” Nelson explains. “Medical radiation is a risk factor for problems down the road, and we know that the amount of radiation people are receiving has gone through the roof in recent years.”
How big is the problem? Nelson cites data collected on radiation exposure on the U.S. population from 1987 to 2006 by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). At the beginning of the study, about 18 percent of all radiation exposure was medical. By 2006, that number had grown to 48 percent (see chart below). …
With over 75 percent of children diagnosed with cancer surviving into adulthood, more and more parents ask questions about the quality of life survivors can expect in the future, including: Will my child be able to have children down the road?
They’re right to be concerned. The therapies that are so effective at saving children’s lives can themselves cause a host of problems that don’t manifest until years later. These late effects of cancer treatment include particularly harsh impacts on fertility.
For most men, it’s just a matter of time until an enlarged prostate compels more frequent trips to the bathroom, day and night. A new study from Children’s researchers and colleagues implicates circulating cholesterol and suggests a potential new prevention and therapeutic strategy. The findings are reported in the October Journal of Urology.
The paper is an interesting culmination of a story that goes back nearly 40 years. And granted, it’s a hamster study, but if the research is able to go forward, it could mean a new use for an existing cholesterol-lowering drug. …