Stories about: vaccination

Culture shock: Why poliovirus had to live before it could die

Children with polio are treated in an iron lung
Pictured here in the 1950s, polio patients breathe with the help of an iron lung at Boston Children’s Hospital.

Today, stories of polio may seem like echoes from far-away history to those born after 1979, the year that polio was eradicated in the U.S. Since then, it has been customary for children to receive four doses of the polio vaccine to protect them from ever contracting the terrifying disease also known as “infantile paralysis.”

Polio, however, still afflicts people in some areas of the world today. It causes muscle wasting and — in the most severe cases — can completely rob a person of his or her ability to move or breathe, resulting in death.

In the U.S., research efforts to create a polio vaccine lasted much of the 20th century. Although the virus was thriving and spreading among people, researchers repeatedly failed at getting poliovirus to survive in culture.

Then, one of the most crucial breaks in the fight against polio occurred in a Boston Children’s Hospital laboratory in 1949, during the heyday of polio outbreaks.

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How social media and a mumps outbreak teach us that vaccines build herd immunity

Mumps virus, pictured here, is usually preventable by vaccination.
The mumps virus, pictured here, has been spreading through Arkansas communities. Surprisingly, many affected people say they have received vaccinations to prevent it. Analyzing social media data helped a Boston Children’s Hospital team understand why so many people got sick.

Residents of Arkansas have been under siege by a viral threat that is typically preventable through vaccination. Since August 2016, more than 2,000 people have been stricken with mumps, an infection of the major salivary glands that causes uncomfortable facial swelling.

The disease is highly contagious but can usually be prevented by making sure that children (or adults) have had two doses of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. But strangely, about 70 percent of people in Arkansas who got sick with mumps reported that they had received their two doses of the MMR vaccine.

So, members of the HealthMap lab, led by Chief Innovation Officer and director of the Computational Epidemiology Group at Boston Children’s Hospital, John Brownstein, PhD, asked, “Why did this outbreak take off?”

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Yes, poor vaccination rates are fueling the 2015 measles outbreak

CDC measles outbreak map vaccination Disneyland
(CDC)

There’s been a lot of speculation about whether low vaccination rates are feeding the 2015 U.S. measles outbreak, which as I write this stands at 145 cases across seven states. Well, we can stop speculating, because the numbers are in, and measles is taking advantage of pockets of inadequately vaccinated people.

That’s the stark, unequivocal message from a study by epidemiologists at Boston Children’s Hospital, published this week in the journal JAMA Pediatrics.

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Measles in America: Why vaccination matters

Maimuna (Maia) Majumder is an engineering systems PhD student at MIT and computational epidemiology research fellow at HealthMap.

The 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak in the United States, which started in late December and spread to more than 100 people in just 6 weeks, has recently become the subject of substantial media scrutiny.

Measles is extremely infectious, exhibiting a basic reproductive number between 12 and 18—one of the highest recorded in history. This means that for every 1 case who gets sick in a totally susceptible population, 12 to 18 other folks get sick, too. Thankfully, when uptake of the measles vaccine is high enough in a given community, it’s almost impossible for the disease to spread—thus halting a potential outbreak in its tracks.

But what happens when vaccine rates aren’t high enough?

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