This past week, the 2016 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games began in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with more than 11,000 athletes and 500,000 international fans expected to arrive. As a major mass gathering, the Olympic Games are always vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This summer, all eyes in public health are on the concurrently occurring Zika virus and the under-reported H1N1 influenza outbreak in Brazil.
According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), visitors to the 2016 Games are most at risk for gastrointestinal illness from waterborne pathogens and mosquito-borne infections, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. So far in 2016, we have seen an estimated 165,000 cases of Zika virus, 1,345,286 cases of dengue, 137,808 cases of chikungunya and more than 6,500 cases of H1N1 influenza, with an additional 1,233 deaths from H1N1 — all in Brazil alone. …
As the Zika epidemic continues to unfold, most affected countries are flying blind: they have limited government disease surveillance systems in place to track new cases. That leaves public health officials unable to estimate how fast Zika is spreading, where the hotspots are and when the outbreak will peak — much less contain it and prepare for cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, both now presumed to be caused by the Zika virus.
“One of the things we really struggled with in the early days of Zika was a lack of official data sources,” says research fellow Maia Majumder, MPH, of the Computational Epidemiology Group at Boston Children’s Hospital. “Surveillance has been really lagging. When we don’t know how many cases there are day to day, week to week, it’s really hard to characterize how bad an outbreak is.”
A study this week led by Majumder suggests a readily available data source for estimating actual case counts on the ground: online local news reports, adjusted using data from Google search trends. …
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Zika’s surface in stunning detail; mosquito tactics
We haven’t curbed the Zika epidemic yet. But cryo-electron microscopy — a newer, faster alternative to X-ray crystallography — at least reveals the structure of the virus, which has been linked to microcephaly (though not yet definitively). The anatomy of the virus’s projections gives clues to how the virus is able to attach to and infect cells, and could provide toeholds for developing antiviral treatments and vaccines. Read coverage in the Washington Post and see the full paper in Science.
Meanwhile, as The New York Times reports, scientists are coming together in an effort to control Zika by genetically manipulating the mosquito that spreads it, Aedes aegypti. …
To help public health investigators, policy makers, epidemiologists and others keep up with the virus, the team at HealthMap has released a dedicated Zika virus tracking resource at http://www.healthmap.org/zika/. The new map brings in Zika-related information and news from a variety of sources in near real-time, and includes a constantly updated interactive timeline of the virus’s explosive spread across South and Central America.
As you may have heard, Brazil is facing a startling outbreak of microcephaly, a rare condition in which a child is born with a head and brain that are much smaller than normal. Microcephaly is almost always associated with neurologic impairment and can be life-threatening.
The epidemic has been linked to an influx of the mosquito-borne virus Zika, first detected in Brazil last April. This past Friday, January 16, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued travel warnings advising pregnant women to avoid visiting El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela and Puerto Rico. And over the weekend, the first U.S. case of microcephaly linked to Zika reportedly surfaced in Hawaii.