Stories about: Global health

The MERS death rate in Saudi Arabia is double that in South Korea. Why?

map South Korea Saudi Arabia MERS
(Wikimedia Commons)

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) virus outbreak in South Korea is essentially over. (Not so in Saudi Arabia, where the virus first emerged, though—authorities there have reported a major uptick in new MERS cases in recent days.) And while the country gets back on its feet, some interesting data are starting to come out, especially about the outbreak’s case fatality rate (CFR; the percent of patients infected with the virus who died from it).

John Brownstein, PhD, and Maimuna Majumder, MPH, from Boston Children’s HealthMap team just reported in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases that MERS’ CFR in South Korea (22 percent) is fully half that seen in Saudi Arabia (44 percent).

This infographic about Brownstein and Majumder’s MERS paper gives a snapshot of the data the analyzed, and what they think those data mean:

MERS virus South Korea Saudi Arabia infographic

Read Brownstein and Majumder’s analysis and check out Boston Children’s Hospital’s news release about the MERS paper.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

So, what’s your digital phenotype?

Ideally, we’re all supposed to see our doctor once a year for a checkup. It’s an opportunity to see how we’re doing from a health perspective, address any concerns or issues that we may have and catch any emerging issues before they become true problems.

But those visits are really only one-time, infrequent snapshots of health. They don’t give a full view of how we’re doing or feeling.

Now, think for a moment about how often you post something to Facebook or Twitter. Do you post anything about whether you’re feeling ill or down, or haven’t slept well? Ever share how far you ran, the route you biked or your number of steps for the day?

Every time you do, you’re creating a data point—another snapshot—about your health. Put those data points together, and what starts to emerge is a rich view of your health, much richer than one based on the records of your occasional medical visit.

As John Brownstein, PhD—director of the Computational Epidemiology Group (CEG) in Boston Children’s Hospital’s Computational Health Informatics Program and the hospital’s new Chief Innovation Officer—explains in this episode of the Harvard Medical School (HMS) Labcast (click the image above to hear it), this view has a name: your digital phenotype.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

Detecting Ebola within minutes: A treatment and containment game changer

Ebola

Tests for detecting Ebola in the blood can take anywhere from 12 hours to four days to yield results. But a recent study published in The Lancet reveals that a new point-of-care test can accurately determine results in mere minutes—another step toward potentially controlling the spread of Ebola.

Nira Pollock, MD, PhD, senior author of the paper and associate medical director of the Infectious Diseases Diagnostic Laboratory at Boston Children’s Hospital, along with researchers from Harvard Medical School and Partners In Health, showed that a commercially developed rapid diagnostic test (RDT), called the Corgenix ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit, was as sensitive as a conventional laboratory-based method used for clinical testing during the recent outbreak in Sierra Leone.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

Targeting inflammation in sickle cell disease with fatty acids

sickle cell disease red blood cells
(OpenStax College/Wikimedia Commons)

Painful, tissue-damaging vaso-occlusive crises (a.k.a. pain crises) are one of the key clinical concerns in sickle cell disease (SCD). The characteristic C-shaped red blood cells of SCD become jammed in capillaries, starving tissues of oxygen and triggering searing pain. Over a patient’s life, these repeated rounds of oxygen deprivation (ischemia) can take a heavy toll on multiple organs.

There’s some debate as to why these crises take place—is the sickled cell’s shape and rigidity at fault, or are the blood vessels chronically inflamed and more prone to blockage? Either way, doctors can currently do little to treat vaso-occlusive crises, and nothing to prevent them.

The inflammation view, however, is leading some researchers to ask whether omega-3 fatty acids—which can alleviate inflammation—might be part of the solution. A recent mouse study in the journal Haematologica, led by Mark Puder, MD, PhD, of Boston Children’s Vascular Biology Program, and Carlo Brugnara, MD, of the hospital’s Department of Laboratory Medicine reveals some molecular clues and suggests that human trials of omega-3s might be a good next step.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

Early adversity and the brain: Bangladeshi children may provide lessons

neuroimaging adversity Bangladesh
Children from the neighborhood around the neuroimaging lab

Dhaka, Bangladesh, is a megacity, one of the world’s fastest growing. By 2025, the U.N. predicts, Dhaka will be home to more than 20 million people as rural migrants swell its population. Many residents live in extreme poverty, crowded into dense, hot, chaotic slums with open sewers and corrugated housing.

While traditional global health programs have focused on curbing infectious disease, low-resource settings like Dhaka are also coming to be seen as “living laboratories” for investigating how adversity affects children’s brain development. Last year, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation awarded a two-year, $2.5 million grant to Charles Nelson, PhD, to bring the first fully equipped neuroimaging facility to Bangladesh.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

What we’ve been reading: Week of May 18, 2015

shutterstock_197113067

From cancer to feet: the power of Twitter in healthcare (MedCity News)
Why does Twitter care about the healthcare industry? Craig Hashi, one of two Twitter engineers dedicated to healthcare, details the opportunities.

MIT’s implantable device could help docs determine best cancer medicine (Boston Business Journal)
Removing the trial and error associated with cancer drug treatments is high on oncologists’ wish lists. Heeding that call, MIT has developed an implantable device (about the size of a grain of rice) that can carry up to 30 different drug doses to a cancerous tumor, and then be removed to test responses.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

Early neglect and deprivation change the body’s stress response systems

Photo: Angela Catlin/Wikimedia Commons
Photo: Angela Catlin/Wikimedia Commons

Severe social and emotional deprivation in early life is written into our biochemical stress responses. That’s the latest learning from the long-running Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), which began in 2000 and has been tracking severely neglected Romanian children in orphanages. Some of these children were randomly picked to be placed with carefully screened foster care families, and they’ve been compared with those left behind ever since.

While studies in rodents have linked early-life adversity with hyper-reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis, the relationship has been harder to pin down in humans. BEIP’s study, involving almost 140 children around the age of 12, had children perform potentially stressful tasks, including delivering a speech before teachers, receiving social feedback from other children and playing a computer game that malfunctioned partway through.

Unlike the rodents, the institutionalized children had blunted responses in the sympathetic nervous system, which is associated with the “fight or flight” response, and in the HPA axis, which regulates production of the stress hormone cortisol. The researchers note that this dulled physiologic response has been linked to health problems, including chronic fatigue, pain syndrome and auto-immune conditions, as well as aggression and behavioral problems.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

What we’ve been reading: Week of March 30, 2015

shutterstock_175074977Bubble wrap used for cheap blood and bacteria tests (New Scientist)
Snap, crackle, pop are the familiar sounds of bubble wrap. According to George Whitesides at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, the cheap packing material may be popping up in the near future as a diagnostic tool, replacing costlier 96-well plates.

Nearly half of all pre-schoolers with ADHD are on medication (Washington Post)
The American Academy of Pediatrics calls for children under 6 with ADHD to engage in behavioral therapy before taking medication. Yet according to a national survey published in the Journal of Pediatrics, nearly half of preschool-aged children are on medication for the condition, and more than a fifth were receiving neither of the recommended therapies.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

What we’ve been reading: Week of March 23, 2015

shutterstock_208124314

 

Single-Dose Cures for Malaria, Other Diseases (MIT Technology Review)
Pills that deliver a full course of treatment in one swallow could, or “super pills,” could simplify the treatment of diseases such as malaria and potentially produce cost savings that stretch into the $100 billion a year range, according to Bob Langer, PhD, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Read Full Story | Leave a Comment

Six emerging trends in vaccine development

boy receiving vaccine-shutterstock

Vaccines to protect against infectious disease are the single most effective medical product, but developing new ones is a challenging and lengthy process, limiting their use in developing countries where they are most needed. Once a new vaccine is developed, it undergoes animal testing, which is time-consuming and does not necessarily reflect human immunity.

“It can take decades from the start of vaccine development to FDA approval at huge cost,” says Ofer Levy, MD, PhD, a physician and researcher in the Division of Infectious Diseases at Boston Children’s Hospital. “We are working on making the process faster and more affordable.”

A variety of new strategies are emerging to facilitate vaccine development and delivery:

1. Modular approaches to vaccine production

The Multiple Antigen Presenting System (MAPS) is one innovative modular method to more efficiently produce vaccines that provide robust immunity.

Read Full Story | 1 Comment | Leave a Comment